Difference in metallic wear distribution released from commercially pure titanium compared with stainless steel plates
- 419 Downloads
Stainless steel and commercially pure titanium are widely used materials in orthopedic implants. However, it is still being controversially discussed whether there are significant differences in tissue reaction and metallic release, which should result in a recommendation for preferred use in clinical practice.
Materials and methods
A comparative study was performed using 14 stainless steel and 8 commercially pure titanium plates retrieved after a 12-month implantation period. To avoid contamination of the tissue with the elements under investigation, surgical instruments made of zirconium dioxide were used. The tissue samples were analyzed histologically and by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) for accumulation of the metals Fe, Cr, Mo, Ni, and Ti in the local tissues. Implant corrosion was determined by the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
With grades 2 or higher in 9 implants, steel plates revealed a higher extent of corrosion in the SEM compared with titanium, where only one implant showed corrosion grade 2. Metal uptake of all measured ions (Fe, Cr, Mo, Ni) was significantly increased after stainless steel implantation, whereas titanium revealed only high concentrations for Ti. For the two implant materials, a different distribution of the accumulated metals was found by histological examination. Whereas specimens after steel implantation revealed a diffuse siderosis of connective tissue cells, those after titanium exhibited occasionally a focal siderosis due to implantation-associated bleeding. Neither titanium- nor stainless steel-loaded tissues revealed any signs of foreign-body reaction.
We conclude from the increased release of toxic, allergic, and potentially carcinogenic ions adjacent to stainless steel that commercially pure Ti should be treated as the preferred material for osteosyntheses if a removal of the implant is not intended. However, neither material provoked a foreign-body reaction in the local tissues, thus cpTi cannot be recommend as the ‘golden standard’ for osteosynthesis material in general.
KeywordsStainless steel Commercially pure titanium Metallurgical analysis Trace element analysis Retrieval study
We thank the German Ministry of Science and Education (bmb+f) for their financial support. We also wish to thank all participants in the Center of Competence for Biomaterials, Ulm, for their helpful administrative and technical support. We gratefully thank Synthes GmbH & Co. KG, Umkirch, Germany, for making the implants available. We especially thank Mr. Werner Ohmayer and Mrs. Karin Dillenz for their diligent assistance and organization between the institutes and departments involved.
- 1.Affato S, Ferrari G, Chevalier J, Ruggeri O, Toni A (2002) Surface characterization and debris analysis of ceramic pairings after ten million cycles on a hip joint simulator. Proc Inst Mech Eng [H] 216:419–424Google Scholar
- 13.Hunt JA, Williams DF, Ungersboeck A, Perren S (1994) The effect of titanium debris on soft tissue response. J Mater Sci Mater Med 5:381–383Google Scholar
- 18.Krivan V (1986) Application of radiotracers to methodological studies in trace element analysis. In: Elving PJ (ed) Offprints from treatise on analytical chemistry. John Wiley, Philadelphia, pp 339–417Google Scholar
- 22.Morais S, Sousa JP, Fernandes MH, Carvalho GS, Bruijn JD de, Blitterswijk CA van (1998) Decreased consumption of Ca and P during in vitro biomineralization and biologically induced deposition of Ni and Cr in presence of stainless steel corrosion products. J Biomed Mater Res 42:199–212CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 33.Simpson JP, Geret V, Brown SA, Merritt K (1981) Retrieved fracture plates: implant and tissue analysis. In: Weinstein A, Gibbons D, Brown SA, Ruff A, (eds) Implant retrieval: material and biological analysis. NBS special publication 601, Washington DC, pp 395–422Google Scholar
- 35.Smith RG (1972) Five of potential significance. In: Lee DHK (ed) Metallic contaminants and human health. Academic Press, New York, pp 139–162Google Scholar
- 36.Steinemann SG (1996) Metal implants and surface reactions. Injury [suppl] 3:S-C16–22Google Scholar
- 37.Thewes M, Kretschmer R, Gfesser M, Rakoski J, Nerlich M, Borelli S, Ring J (2001) Immunohistochemical characterization of the perivascular infiltrate cells in tissues adjacent to stainless steel implants compared with titanium implants. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 121:223–226CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 40.Ungersboeck A, Perren SM, Pohler O (1994) Comparison of tissue reaction to implants made of beta titanium alloy and pure titanium. Experimental study on rabbits. J Mater Sci Mater Med 5:788–792Google Scholar
- 41.Ungersboeck A, Geret V, Pohler O, Schuetz M, Wuest W (1995) Tissue reaction to bone plates made of pure titanium: a prospective, quantitative clinical study. J Mater Sci Mater Med 6:223–229Google Scholar