Rationales of arthroscopic shoulder stabilization
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Arthroscopic reconstruction of glenohumeral instability has become more common during the past decade. Compared with open reconstruction, which is still the gold standard in the treatment of shoulder instability, arthroscopic techniques allow for improved diagnosis of numerous intraarticular findings. This review presents an appropriate system for the arthroscopic classification of most pathological findings in patients with anterior shoulder instability. Based on the presented classification, a rationale for arthroscopic reconstruction under special conditions is given. Several operative techniques and implants are discussed and their use in certain circumstances analyzed. Special emphasis is targeted on techniques of realizing sufficient capsular shift or plication. Arthroscopic procedures remain technically demanding and require skills to address the great variety of possible situations. On the other hand, arthroscopic techniques in shoulder reconstruction benefit patients by avoiding the morbidity of open surgery. However, the surgeon must be prepared to address numerous conditions beyond a mere Bankart lesion, especially those involving capsular laxity, rotator interval lesions, and SLAP (superior labrum lesions from anterior to posterior) lesions. Nowadays, considering all the new technical possibilities of arthroscopic shoulder reconstruction including capsular shift procedures, most cases of anterior shoulder instability are suitable for arthroscopic reconstruction. Further studies are necessary to validate the continued efficacy of arthroscopic stabilization.
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