Acta Neuropathologica

, Volume 130, Issue 5, pp 713–729 | Cite as

Abeta targets of the biosimilar antibodies of Bapineuzumab, Crenezumab, Solanezumab in comparison to an antibody against N-truncated Abeta in sporadic Alzheimer disease cases and mouse models

  • Yvonne Bouter
  • Jose Socrates Lopez Noguerola
  • Petra Tucholla
  • Gabriela A. N. Crespi
  • Michael W. Parker
  • Jens Wiltfang
  • Luke A. Miles
  • Thomas A. BayerEmail author
Original Paper


Solanezumab and Crenezumab are two humanized antibodies targeting Amyloid-β (Aβ) which are currently tested in multiple clinical trials for the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease. However, there is a scientific discussion ongoing about the target engagement of these antibodies. Here, we report the immunohistochemical staining profiles of biosimilar antibodies of Solanezumab, Crenezumab and Bapineuzumab in human formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue and human fresh frozen tissue. Furthermore, we performed a direct comparative immunohistochemistry analysis of the biosimilar versions of the humanized antibodies in different mouse models including 5XFAD, Tg4-42, TBA42, APP/PS1KI, 3xTg. The staining pattern with these humanized antibodies revealed a surprisingly similar profile. All three antibodies detected plaques, cerebral amyloid angiopathy and intraneuronal Aβ in a similar fashion. Remarkably, Solanezumab showed a strong binding affinity to plaques. We also reaffirmed that Bapineuzumab does not recognize N-truncated or modified Aβ, while Solanezumab and Crenezumab do detect N-terminally modified Aβ peptides Aβ4–42 and pyroglutamate Aβ3–42. In addition, we compared the results with the staining pattern of the mouse NT4X antibody that recognizes specifically Aβ4–42 and pyroglutamate Aβ3–42, but not full-length Aβ1–42. In contrast to the biosimilar antibodies of Solanezumab, Crenezumab and Bapineuzumab, the murine NT4X antibody shows a unique target engagement. NT4X does barely cross-react with amyloid plaques in human tissue. It does, however, detect cerebral amyloid angiopathy in human tissue. In Alzheimer mouse models, NT4X detects intraneuronal Aβ and plaques comparable to the humanized antibodies. In conclusion, the biosimilar antibodies Solanezumab, Crenezumab and Bapineuzumab strongly react with amyloid plaques, which are in contrast to the NT4X antibody that hardly recognizes plaques in human tissue. Therefore, NT4X is the first of a new class of therapeutic antibodies.


Alzheimer’s disease Immunotherapy Abeta Plaques Congophilic amyloid angiopathy Immunization 



This work was supported by funding from the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (NHMRC) to LAM and MWP (APP1021935) and from the Victorian Government Operational Infrastructure Support Scheme to St. Vincent’s Institute. MWP is a NHMRC Research Fellow. JSLN received a Ph.D. stipend from the Mexican Ministry of Education (SEP) for the Improvement of Faculty (PROMEP). We greatly acknowledge the financial support by the Alzheimer Forschungs Initiative to TAB.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

A patent application for the antibody NT4X was filed by the University Medicine of Goettingen and Thomas A. Bayer.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yvonne Bouter
    • 1
  • Jose Socrates Lopez Noguerola
    • 1
  • Petra Tucholla
    • 1
  • Gabriela A. N. Crespi
    • 2
  • Michael W. Parker
    • 2
    • 3
  • Jens Wiltfang
    • 4
  • Luke A. Miles
    • 2
    • 3
  • Thomas A. Bayer
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of Molecular Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry and PsychotherapyUniversity Medicine Göttingen, Georg-August-University of GöttingenGöttingenGermany
  2. 2.ACRF Rational Drug Discovery Centre, St. Vincent’s Institute of Medical ResearchFitzroyAustralia
  3. 3.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology InstituteUniversity of MelbourneParkvilleAustralia
  4. 4.Department of Psychiatry and PsychotherapyUniversity Medicine Göttingen, Georg-August-University of GöttingenGöttingenGermany

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