ATRX and IDH1-R132H immunohistochemistry with subsequent copy number analysis and IDH sequencing as a basis for an “integrated” diagnostic approach for adult astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma and glioblastoma
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Diffuse gliomas are represented in the 2007 WHO classification as astrocytomas, oligoastrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas of grades II and III and glioblastomas WHO grade IV. Molecular data on these tumors have a major impact on prognosis and therapy of the patients. Consequently, the inclusion of molecular parameters in the WHO definition of brain tumors is being planned and has been forwarded as the “ISN-Haarlem” consensus. We, here, analyze markers of special interest including ATRX, IDH and 1p/19q codeletion in a series of 405 adult patients. Among the WHO 2007 classified tumors were 152 astrocytomas, 61 oligodendrogliomas, 63 oligoastrocytomas and 129 glioblastomas. Following the concepts of the “ISN-Haarlem”, we rediagnosed the series to obtain “integrated” diagnoses with 155 tumors being astrocytomas, 100 oligodendrogliomas and 150 glioblastomas. In a subset of 100 diffuse gliomas from the NOA-04 trial with long-term follow-up data available, the “integrated” diagnosis had a significantly greater prognostic power for overall and progression-free survival compared to WHO 2007. Based on the “integrated” diagnoses, loss of ATRX expression was close to being mutually exclusive to 1p/19q codeletion, with only 2 of 167 ATRX-negative tumors exhibiting 1p/19q codeletion. All but 4 of 141 patients with loss of ATRX expression and diffuse glioma carried either IDH1 or IDH2 mutations. Interestingly, the majority of glioblastoma patients with loss of ATRX expression but no IDH mutations exhibited an H3F3A mutation. Further, all patients with 1p/19 codeletion carried a mutation in IDH1 or IDH2. We present an algorithm based on stepwise analysis with initial immunohistochemistry for ATRX and IDH1-R132H followed by 1p/19q analysis followed by IDH sequencing which reduces the number of molecular analyses and which has a far better association with patient outcome than WHO 2007.
KeywordsATRX IDH Diffuse glioma Glioblastoma Oligodendroglioma Astrocytoma 7p/10q H3F3A 1p/19q
The authors (WW, MW) conducting this work represent the Neurooncology Working Group (NOA) of the German Cancer Society. We gratefully acknowledge the contributions of Ulrike Ernemann, MD and Christoph Meisner, PhD (Tübingen, Germany), Guido Reifenberger, MD and Michael C. Sabel, MD (Düsseldorf, Germany), Susanne Koeppen, MD (Essen, Germany), Otmar Wiestler, MD and Thorsten Pietsch, MD (Bonn, Germany) and Ralf Ketter, MD to the first publication of the study. The study was supported by the Medical Faculty Heidelberg PostDoc Fellowship and the DKFZ Intramural Funding Program, Priority Topic Intratumoral Heterogeneity, to FS. BW is a scholar of the NCT Heidelberg School of Oncology Postdoc Program. We thank Tanja Göck and Viktoria Zeller for excellent technical assistance.
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