Do current therapeutic anti-Aβ antibodies for Alzheimer’s disease engage the target?
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Reducing amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) burden at the pre-symptomatic stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is currently the advocated clinical strategy for treating this disease. The most developed method for targeting Aβ is the use of monoclonal antibodies including bapineuzumab, solanezumab and crenezumab. We have synthesized these antibodies and used surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and mass spectrometry to characterize and compare the ability of these antibodies to target Aβ in transgenic mouse tissue as well as human AD tissue. SPR analysis showed that the antibodies were able to bind Aβ with high affinity. All of the antibodies were able to bind Aβ in mouse tissue. However, significant differences were observed in human brain tissue. While bapineuzumab was able to capture a variety of N-terminally truncated Aβ species, the Aβ detected using solanezumab was barely above detection limits while crenezumab did not detect any Aβ. None of the antibodies were able to detect any Aβ species in human blood. Immunoprecipitation experiments using plasma from AD subjects showed that both solanezumab and crenezumab have extensive cross-reactivity with non-Aβ related proteins. Bapineuzumab demonstrated target engagement with brain Aβ, consistent with published clinical data. Solanezumab and crenezumab did not, most likely as a result of a lack of specificity due to cross-reactivity with other proteins containing epitope overlap. This lack of target engagement raises questions as to whether solanezumab and crenezumab are suitable drug candidates for the preventative clinical trials for AD.
KeywordsAlzheimer’s disease β-Amyloid Bapineuzumab Crenezumab Solanezumab Mass spectrometry
This work was funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (NHMRC) and we thank the AIBL Flagship Study of Aging for the provision of blood samples. Funding was also received from the Victorian Government Operational Infrastructure Support Scheme to St Vincent’s Institute. D.B.A was supported by a Victoria Fellowship from the Victorian Government and a Leslie (Les) J. Fleming Churchill Fellowship from The Winston Churchill Memorial Trust. M.W.P. is an NHMRC Research Fellow.
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