Acta Neuropathologica

, Volume 124, Issue 3, pp 395–396

Targeting intracerebral inflammation in multiple sclerosis: is it feasible?

Commentary

References

  1. 1.
    Brück W, Pförtner R, Pham T, Zhang J, Hayardeny L, Piryatinsky V, Hanisch UK, Regen T, van Rossum D, Brakelmann L, Hagemeier K, Kuhlmann T, Stadelmann C, John GR, Kramann N, Wegner C (2012) Reduced astrocytic NF-kB activation by laquinimod protects from cuprizone-induced demyelination. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) (this issue). doi:10.1007/s00401-012-1009-1
  2. 2.
    Brück W, Wegner C (2011) Insight into the mechanism of laquinimod action. J Neurol Sci 306:173–179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Comi G, Jeffery D, Kappos L, Montalban X, Boyko A, Rocca MA, Filippi M (2012) Placebo-controlled trial of oral laquinimod for multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med 366:1000–1009PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Foster CA, Howard LM, Schweitzer A, Persohn E, Hiestand PC, Balatoni B, Reuschel R, Beerli C, Schwartz M, Billich A (2007) Brain penetration of the oral immunomodulatory drug FTY720 and its phosphorylation in the central nervous system during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: consequences for mode of action in multiple sclerosis. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 323:469–475PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Frischer JM, Bramow S, Dal Bianco A, Lucchinetti C, Rauschka H, Schmidbauer M, Laursen H, Sorensen PS, Lassmann H (2009) The relation between inflammation and neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis. Brain 132:1175–1189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hochmeister S, Grundtner R, Bauer J, Engelhardt B, Lyck R, Gordon G, Korosec T, Kutzelnigg A, Berger JJ, Bradl M, Bittner RE, Lassmann H (2006) Dysferlin is a new marker for leaky brain blood vessels in multiple sclerosis. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 65:855–865PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kappos L, Radue EW, O’Connor P, Hohlfeld R, Calabresi P, Selmaj K, Agoropoulou C, Leyk M, Zhang-Auberson L, Burtin P, FREEDOMS Study Group (2010) A placebo-controlled trial of oral fingolimod in relapsing multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med 362:387–401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Reynolds R, Roncaroli F, Nicholas B, Gveric D, Howell O (2011) The neuropathological basis of clinical progression in multiple sclerosis. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 122:155–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sofroniew MV, Vinters HV (2010) Astrocytes; biology and pathology. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 119:7–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Van Doorn R, Nijland PG, Dekker N, Witte ME, van het Hof B, Kooij G, Reijerkerk A, Dijkstra C, van der Valk P, van Horssen J, de Vires H (2012) Fingolimod attenuates ceramide-induced blood brain barrier dysfunction in multiple sclerosis by targeting reactive astrocytes. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) (this issue). doi:10.1007/s00401-012-1014-4
  11. 11.
    Wiendl H, Hohlfeld R (2009) Multiple sclerosis therapeutics: unexpected outcomes clouding undisputed successes. Neurology 72:1008–1015PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Brain ResearchMedical University of ViennaWienAustria

Personalised recommendations