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Acta Neuropathologica

, Volume 120, Issue 6, pp 689–705 | Cite as

Sensory circumventricular organs in health and disease

  • Sílvia SisóEmail author
  • Martin Jeffrey
  • Lorenzo González
Review

Abstract

Circumventricular organs (CVOs) are specialized brain structures located around the third and fourth ventricles. They differ from the rest of the brain parenchyma in that they are highly vascularised areas that lack a blood–brain barrier. These neurohaemal organs are classified as “sensory”, when they contain neurons that can receive chemical inputs from the bloodstream. This review focuses on the sensory CVOs to describe their unique structure, and their functional roles in the maintenance of body fluid homeostasis and cardiovascular regulation, and in the generation of central acute immune and febrile responses. In doing so, the main neural connections to visceral regulatory centres such as the hypothalamus, the medulla oblongata and the endocrine hypothalamic-pituitary axis, as well as some of the relevant chemical substances involved, are described. The CVOs are vulnerable to circulating pathogens and can be portals for their entry in the brain. This review highlights recent investigations that show that the CVOs and related structures are involved in pathological conditions such as sepsis, stress, trypanosomiasis, autoimmune encephalitis, systemic amyloidosis and prion infections, while detailed information on their role in other neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease or multiple sclerosis is lacking. It is concluded that studies of the CVOs and related structures may help in the early diagnosis and treatment of such disorders.

Keywords

Circumventricular organs Neuroimmunology Pathology Prion Animal model Homeostasis 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors greatly appreciate the help provided by Dr. Gillian McGovern in adapting and reproducing Figs. 3, 4 and 6. The authors also thank Dr. James Hope for critically reading the manuscript.

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Copyright information

© Crown Copyright 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sílvia Sisó
    • 1
    Email author
  • Martin Jeffrey
    • 1
  • Lorenzo González
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pathology, Veterinary Laboratories Agency (Lasswade)Pentlands Science ParkPenicuikScotland, UK

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