Recurrent glioblastoma diagnosed by fluorescence in situ hybridization for EGFR
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Glioblastoma (GBM) continues to be the most common primary brain tumor in adults with a rapidly progressive and fatal course despite current therapies. The molecular genetics of these tumors are being intensely investigated and different types of genetic pathways are seen within two types of GBMs: de novo (or primary) GBMs often show epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene amplification and overexpression, p16INK4A deletion, and deletions on chromosome 10 (PTEN) while secondary GBMs may show TP53 and RB mutations. However, to date, none of these molecular markers have been shown to predict patient prognosis independent of age and histological grade.
After the initial diagnosis of GBM, most patients undergo surgical resection followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. Occasionally a biopsy is performed to distinguish radiation necrosis from recurrent tumor. The interpretation of these biopsies is difficult as these interventions are all accompanied by macrophage infiltrates,...