Acta Neuropathologica

, Volume 107, Issue 2, pp 176–180 | Cite as

Anomalous alterations affecting microglia in the central nervous system of a fetus at 12 weeks of gestation: case report

Case Report

Abstract

We report here on the first documented case of profound alterations specifically affecting the microglial population within the nervous system during the fetal period. This case, derived at gestational week 12, was one amongst a series of second trimester brains currently being investigated with respect to microglial colonization of the human fetal brain. No significant pathological alterations could be identified upon gross macroscopy or following microscopic analysis of serial brain sections stained with cresyl fast violet (Nissl). By contrast, sections stained immunohistochemically to detect MHC class II (CR3/43) and CD68 (PG-M1) antigens revealed a marked pathological change in the morphology and density of microglia within the CNS. Specifically, labeled cells within the rostral telencephalon were clearly hypertrophied and emitted numerous, branched processes in all directions, appearing in an atypical ‘hyper-ramified’ state uncharacteristic of microglia found in normal brains at this age. However, cells located elsewhere in the CNS (for example in the thalamus and internal capsule) appeared in a less differentiated state (small, rounded cells lacking processes) when compared to those within normal age-matched control brains. The total density and distribution of these labeled cells far outnumbered that seen in normal development. As far as we are aware, such an anomaly specifically affecting microglia, has not been documented previously. Consequently, this case represents the first of its kind, and the remarkable observations outlined in this study bear considerable significance from a neuropathological standpoint for future investigations into pathological changes affecting microglia in the central nervous system during the fetal period.

Keywords

Ramified fetal microglia MHC class II antigen CD68 Immunohistochemistry 

References

  1. 1.
    Craviota H (1975) Human and experimental reticulum cell sarcoma (microglioma) of the nervous system. Acta Neuropathol Suppl 6:135–140Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Feess-Higins A, Larroche JC (1987) Development of the human fetal brain. An anatomical atlas. INSERM CNRS, ParisGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Goddard DR, Berry M, Kirvell SL, Butt AM (2002) Fibroblast growth factor-2 induces astroglial and microglial reactivity in vivo. J Anat 200:57–67CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hochberg FH, Miller DC (1988) Primary central nervous system lymphoma. J Neurosurg 68:835–853PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hulette CM (1996) Microglioma, a histiocytic neoplasm of the central nervous system. Mod Pathol 9:316–319PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ishida Y (1975) Fine structure of primary reticulum cell sarcoma of the brain. Acta Neuropathol Suppl 6:147–153Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Levison SW, Ducceschi MH, Young GM, Wood TL (1996) Acute exposure to CNTF in vivo induces multiple components of reactive gliosis. Exp Neurol 141:256–268Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Polak M (1975) Microglioma and/or reticulosarcoma of the nervous system. Acta Neuropathol Suppl 6:115–118Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rezaie P (2003) Microglia in the human nervous system during development. Neuroembryology 2:18–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rezaie P, Male D (1999) Colonisation of the developing human brain and spinal cord by microglia—a review. Microsc Res Tech 45:359–382CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rezaie P, Male D (2002) Differentiation, ramification and distribution of microglia within the central nervous system examined. Neuroembryology 1:29–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rezaie P, Male D (2002) Mesoglia and microglia: a historical review of the concept of mononuclear phagocytes within the central nervous system. J Hist Neurosci 11:325–374CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Neuroembryonic Research Laboratory, Institute of AnatomyUniversity of RostockRostockGermany
  2. 2.Department of NeuropathologyJohannes Gutenberg UniversityMainzGermany
  3. 3.Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of ScienceThe Open University, Walton HallMilton KeynesUK

Personalised recommendations