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Acta Neuropathologica

, Volume 103, Issue 5, pp 458–468 | Cite as

Chemokines are differentially expressed by astrocytes, microglia and inflammatory leukocytes in Toxoplasma encephalitis and critically regulated by interferon-γ

  • Andreas Strack
  • Valérie C. Asensio
  • Iain L. Campbell
  • Dirk Schlüter
  • Martina Deckert
Regular Paper

Abstract.

The intracerebral formation of inflammatory infiltrates is a complex process, which may be regulated by chemokines. This study defines the kinetics and cellular sources of T cell- and macrophage-attracting chemokines in murine Toxoplasma encephalitis (TE) by ribonuclease protection assay, reverse transcription-PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. Whereas astrocytes were the major source of interferon (IFN)-γ-inducible protein-10 (CRG-2/IP-10) and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, microglia expressed RANTES, monokine induced by IFN-γ (MuMIG) and occasionally CRG-2/IP-10 RNA. Despite being ubiquitously activated, only astrocytes and microglia confined to inflammatory infiltrates expressed chemokine genes. Intracerebral leukocytes transcribed RANTES, MuMIG, and occasionally CRG-2/IP-10 and MCP-1. IFN-γ-deficient mice failed to produce CRG-2/IP-10, MuMIG, RANTES and expressed macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1)α, MIP-1β, and MCP-1 mRNA at reduced levels, functionally resulting in a strongly reduced recruitment of leukocytes across the blood-brain barrier and prevented their further invasion of the brain parenchyma. Since T cells are the single source of IFN-γ in TE, these findings indicate that T cells pave the way of leukocytes to parenchymatous parasites via IFN-γ.

Chemokines Encephalitis Astrocyte Microglia T cells Interferon-γ 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andreas Strack
    • 1
  • Valérie C. Asensio
    • 2
  • Iain L. Campbell
    • 2
  • Dirk Schlüter
    • 3
  • Martina Deckert
    • 1
  1. 1.Abteilung für Neuropathologie, Universität zu Köln, Joseph-Stelzmann-Str. 9, 50931 Köln, Germany
  2. 2.Department of Neuropharmacology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, USA
  3. 3.Institut für Med. Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Universitätsklinikum Mannheim, Universität Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany

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