Herzschrittmachertherapie + Elektrophysiologie

, Volume 22, Issue 3, pp 181–188 | Cite as

The distressed (Type D) personality

A risk marker for poor health outcomes in ICD patients
  • S.S. Pedersen
  • A.A. Schiffer


The distressed (Type D) personality is an emerging risk marker for poor health outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease. Patients with this personality disposition are typified by a general propensity to experience psychological distress. The contribution focuses on the impact of Type D personality on psychological distress, quality of life, ventricular tachyarrhythmias, and mortality in implantable cardioverter–defibrillator (ICD) patients and examines the relative influence of this vulnerability factor compared to ICD shocks and markers of disease severity in relation to these outcomes.


Type D personality Health outcomes Implantable cardioverter–defibrillator Psychological distress 

Type D Persönlichkeit

Ein Risikofaktor für schlechtere Gesundheitsergebnisse bei ICD-Patienten


Eine Typ-D-Persönlichkeit („distressed personality“) ist für Patienten mit Herz- und Kreislauferkrankungen ein Risikofaktor für schlechtere therapeutische Ergebnise. Patienten mit dieser Persönlichkeitsdisposition haben die Neigung, verstärkt auf psychische Belastungen zu reagieren. Der Beitrag untersucht, welche Auswirkungen diese Disposition auf die Merkmale „psychologischer Stress“, „Lebensqualität“, „ventrikulare Arrhythmien“ und „Prognose/Lebenserwartung“ hat. Es wird verglichen, in welcher Relation diese Merkmale zur Schockabgabe und zum Krankheitsverlauf stehen.


Typ-D-Persönlichkeit Gesundheitsergebnisse ICD Psychologischer Stress 



This research was in part supported with a VENI (451-05-001) from the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) and a VIDI grant (91710393) from the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMw), The Hague, The Netherlands, to Dr. Susanne S. Pedersen.

Conflict of interest

Prof. Dr. S.S. Pedersen has received speaker fees from Medtronic and St. Jude Medical, and is currently serving as a consultant for St. Jude Medical, Cameron Health, and Sanofi-Aventis. Dr. A.A. Schiffer has in the past received an independent research grant from Medtronic and St. Jude Medical.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CoRPS – Center of Research on Psychology in Somatic diseases, Department of Medical PsychologyTilburg UniversityLE TilburgThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of CardiologyThoraxcenter, Erasmus Medical CenterRotterdamThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of Medical PsychologyTweeSteden HospitalTilburgThe Netherlands

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