Die Bedeutung von Musik für die kardiovaskuläre Chirurgie

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Zusammenfassung

Musik hat nachweisbare Effekte auf Herzfrequenz (HF), Herzfrequenzvariabilität (HRV) und andere physiologische Parameter. Die Effekte von Musik auf das Herz-Kreislauf-System wurden oft beschrieben, systematische Untersuchungen jedoch erst kürzlich vorgelegt. Es konnte nachgewiesen werden, dass Musik als Prämedikation vor herzchirurgischen Eingriffen zu einer signifikant niedrigeren Ängstlichkeitsrate führte als Midazolam (p < 0,001). Auch Stress wurde nach Herzoperationen mit Musikapplikation wesentlich seltener beobachtet als ohne deren Verabreichung, weshalb Musik integraler Bestandteil der Behandlung nach Herzoperationen sein sollte. Musik hat auch bei Herzkatheteruntersuchungen, bei depressiven oder alten Menschen, im Rahmen der Schmerz-, Intensiv- bzw. Palliativmedizin signifikant positive Effekte und sollte deshalb häufiger angewendet werden als bisher. Musik ist individuell nach den Wünschen der Patienten auszuwählen, da nur so die gewünschten positiven Effekte erreicht werden. Ängste werden durch Musik vermieden, zudem geht deren Einsatz mit einer Steigerung der Lebensqualität einher. Die besten Musikeffekte sind durch klassische oder meditative Genre zu erreichen, Heavy-Metal- oder Technomusik sind ineffektiv oder gar schädlich und können zu Stress inklusive lebensgefährlichen Arrhythmien führen. Es gibt zahlreiche Komponisten, deren Musik zur Verbesserung der Lebensqualität führt; hier sind insbesondere Bach, Mozart oder italienische Komponisten zu nennen.

Schlüsselwörter

Musiktherapie Lebensqualität Herz-Kreislauf-System Herzfrequenz Herzchirurgie 

Role of music in cardiovascular surgery

Abstract

It is well known that music has effects on heart rate, heart rate variability, and other physiologic parameters. The influence of music on the cardiovascular system has often been described and recently systematic studies have been published. It has been shown that relaxing music significantly decreases the level of anxiety in the preoperative setting (cardiac surgery) to a greater extent than orally administered midazolam (p <0.001). Greater effectiveness and absence of apparent adverse effects make preoperative relaxing music a useful alternative to midazolam for premedication. In addition, there is sufficient practical evidence of stress reduction to suggest that listening to music while resting in bed after open heart surgery be put into clinical use. Music intervention should also be offered as an integral part of the multimodal regime administered to patients who have undergone cardiovascular surgery. It is a supportive source that increases relaxation. Music is also effective in other conditions and music can be utilized as an effective intervention for depressed or older patients, in the areas of pain, intensive care, or palliative medicine, and should be utilized more often. The selection of music that incorporates a patient’s own preferences may offer an effective method to reduce anxiety and to improve quality of life. The most beneficial effect on health is visible with classic or meditative music, whereas heavy metal music or technosounds are ineffective or even dangerous and can lead to stress and/or life-threatening arrhythmias. There are many composers whose music most effectively leads to an improve quality of life; in particular, Bach, Mozart, and Italian composers can be recommended.

Keywords

Music therapy Quality of life Cardiovascular system Heart rate Cardiac surgery 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Medizinische Univ.-Klinik II (Kardiologie und Angiologie)Ruhr-Universität BochumHerneDeutschland

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