Advertisement

New analysis and correlation between steady and oscillatory tests in fumed silica-based shear thickening fluids

  • Andres G. MoronEmail author
  • Maria Jesus L. Boada
  • Beatriz L. Boada
  • Vicente Diaz
Original Contribution

Abstract

In recent years, the non-Newtonian behavior of shear thickening fluids (STFs) has motivated a sharp increase in the number of studies related to their use for engineering applications. For this reason, rheological characterization of STFs is crucial in order to develop and design new devices based on these novelsmart fluids. Typically, different experiments have been carried out for the rheological characterization of STFs to prove their shear/strain thickening behavior. In order to find an empirical relationship between steady and oscillatory experiments, the modified Cox-Merz rule has been recently used to correlate the results with enormous controversy between authors due to the disparity in the correlations achieved. In this paper, we present an improvement in the correlation between the results obtained in steady and oscillatory tests in STFs using fumed silica-concentrated suspensions. The proposed method with the use of strain sweep oscillatory tests has improved the correlation in all STF regimes (pre-transition, transition, and post-transition) in comparison with the results obtained using the modified Cox-Merz rule, which uses oscillatory frequency sweep tests. This improvement has been experimentally validated using concentrated colloidal suspensions with different concentrations of fumed silica (from 12.5 to 25 wt%).

Graphical Abstract

Rheological experiments with shear thickening fluids performed in this article.

Keywords

Material modeling Fumed silica suspension Shear thickening Modified Cox-Merz rule 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank IMDEA Materials Institute for providing us with facilities.

Funding information

This research was supported by the Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad, Spain, under grant TRA2014-56471-C4-1-R.

References

  1. Barnes HA (1989) Shear-thickening (Dilatancy) in suspensions of nonaggregating solid particles dispersed in Newtonian liquids. J Rheol 33(2):329–366.  https://doi.org/10.1122/1.550017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bender J, Wagner NJ (1996) Reversible shear thickening in monodisperse and bidisperse colloidal dispersions. J Rheol 40(5):899–916.  https://doi.org/10.1122/1.550767 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bossis G, Brady JF (1989) The rheology of Brownian suspensions. J Chem Phys 91(3):1866–1874.  https://doi.org/10.1063/1.457091 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brown E, Jaeger HM (2012) The role of dilation and confining stresses in shear thickening of dense suspensions. J Rheol 56(5):875–923.  https://doi.org/10.1122/1.4709423 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brown E, Jaeger HM (2014) Shear thickening in concentrated suspensions: phenomenology, mechanisms and relations to jamming. Rep Prog Phys 77(4):046602.  https://doi.org/10.1088/0034-4885/77/4/046602 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brown E, Zhang H, Forman NA, Maynor BW, Betts DE, DeSimone JM, Jaeger HM (2010) Shear thickening in densely packed suspensions of spheres and rods confined to few layers. J Rheol 54(5):1023–1046.  https://doi.org/10.1122/1.3474580 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brown E, Forman NA, Orellana CS, Zhang H, Maynor BW, Betts DE, DeSimone JM, Jaeger HM (2010) Generality of shear thickening in dense suspensions. Nat Mater 9(3):220.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nmat2627 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chang L, Friedrich K, Schlarb AK, Tanner R, Ye L (2011) Shear-thickening behaviour of concentrated polymer dispersions under steady and oscillatory shear. J Mater Sci 46(2):339–346.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-010-4817-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cheng X, McCoy JH, Israelachvili JN, Cohen I (2011) Imaging the microscopic structure of shear thinning and thickening colloidal suspensions. Science 333(6047):1276–1279.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1207032 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ding J, Tracey P, Li W, Peng G, Whitten PG, Wallace GG (2013) Review on shear thickening fluids and applications. Textiles and Light Industrial Science and Technology 2(4):161– 173Google Scholar
  11. Doraiswamy D, Mujumdar AN, Tsao I, Beris AN, Danforth SC, Metzner AB (1991) The Cox-Merz rule extended: a rheological model for concentrated suspensions and other materials with a yield stress. J Rheol 35 (4):647–685.  https://doi.org/10.1122/1.550184 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Egres RG, Wagner NJ (2005) The rheology and microstructure of acicular precipitated calcium carbonate colloidal suspensions through the shear thickening transition. J Rheol 49(3):719–746.  https://doi.org/10.1122/1.1895800 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Egres RG, Nettesheim F, Wagner NJ (2006) Rheo-SANS investigation of acicular-precipitated calcium carbonate colloidal suspensions through the shear thickening transition. J Rheol 50(5):685–709.  https://doi.org/10.1122/1.2213245 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fischer C, Plummer CJG, Michaud V, Bourban PE, Månson JAE (2007) Pre- and post-transition behavior of shear-thickening fluids in oscillating shear. Rheol Acta 46(8):1099–1108.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00397-007-0202-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Galindo-Rosales FJ (2016) Complex fluids in energy dissipating systems. Appl Sci 6(8):206.  https://doi.org/10.3390/app6080206 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Galindo-Rosales FJ, Rubio-Hernández F, Velázquez-Navarro JF (2009) Shear-thickening behavior of Aerosil\({{\circledR }}\)r816 nanoparticles suspensions in polar organic liquids. Rheol Acta 48 (6):699–708.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00397-009-0367-7
  17. Galindo-Rosales FJ, Rubio-Hernández FJ, Sevilla A (2011a) An apparent viscosity function for shear thickening fluids. J Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech 166(5-6):321–325.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnnfm.2011.01.001
  18. Galindo-Rosales FJ, Rubio-Hernández FJ, Sevilla A, Ewoldt RH (2011b) How Dr. Malcom M. Cross may have tackled the development of ‘An apparent viscosity function for shear thickening fluids’. J Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech 166(23-24):1421–1424.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnnfm.2011.08.008
  19. Galvez P, Quesada A, Martinez MA, Abenojar J, Boada MJL, Diaz V (2017) Study of the behaviour of adhesive joints of steel with CFRP for its application in bus structures. Compos Part B-Eng 129:41–46.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2017.07.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Garcia-Rojas B, Bautista F, Puig JE, Manero O (2009) Thermodynamic approach to rheology of complex fluids: Flow-concentration coupling. Phys Rev E 80(3):036313.  https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.80.036313 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gauchía A, Olmeda E, Aparicio F, Díaz V (2011) Bus mathematical model of acceleration threshold limit estimation in lateral rollover test. Veh Syst Dyn 49(10):1695–1707.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00423114.2010.544745 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gürgen S, Kuşhan MC, Li W (2016) The effect of carbide particle additives on rheology of shear thickening fluids. Korea-Aust Rheol J 28(2):121–128.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13367-016-0011-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gürgen S, Li W, Kuşhan MC (2016) The rheology of shear thickening fluids with various ceramic particle additives. Mater Des 104:312–319.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2016.05.055 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. He Q, Gong X, Xuan S, Jiang W, Chen Q (2015) Shear thickening of suspensions of porous silica nanoparticles. J Mater Sci 50(18):6041–6049.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-015-9151-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hoffman RL (1972) Discontinuous and dilatant viscosity behavior in concentrated suspensions. I. Observation of a flow instability. Trans Soc Rheol 16(1):155–173.  https://doi.org/10.1122/1.549250 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hoffman RL (1974) Discontinuous and dilatant viscosity behavior in concentrated suspensions. II. Theory and experimental tests. J Colloid Interface Sci 46(3):491–506.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9797(74)90059-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Khandavalli S, Rothstein JP (2015) Large amplitude oscillatory shear rheology of three different shear-thickening particle dispersions. Rheol Acta 54(7):601–618.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00397-015-0855-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Khandavalli S, Rothstein JP (2014) Extensional rheology of shear-thickening fumed silica nanoparticles dispersed in an aqueous polyethylene oxide solution. J Rheol 58(2):411–431.  https://doi.org/10.1122/1.4864620 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Laha A, Majumdar A (2016) Interactive effects of p-aramid fabric structure and shear thickening fluid on impact resistance performance of soft armor materials. Mater Des 89:286–293.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2015.09.077 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lee YS, Wagner NJ (2003) Dynamic properties of shear thickening colloidal suspensions. Rheol Acta 42 (3):199–208.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00397-002-0290-7 Google Scholar
  31. Lee YS, Wagner NJ (2006) Rheological properties and small-angle neutron scattering of a shear thickening, nanoparticle dispersion at high shear rates. Ind Eng Chem Res 45(21):7015–7024.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ie0512690 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Li W, Xiong D, Zhao X, Sun L, Liu J (2016) Dynamic stab resistance of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene fabric impregnated with shear thickening fluid. Mater Des 102:162–167.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2016.04.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Liang CC, Le GN (2009) Bus rollover crashworthiness under european standard: an optimal analysis of superstructure strength using successive response surface method. Int J Crashworthiness 14 (6):623–639.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13588260902920670
  34. Lin NYC, Guy BM, Hermes M, Ness C, Sun J, Poon WCK, Cohen I (2015) Hydrodynamic and contact contributions to continuous shear thickening in colloidal suspensions. Phys Rev Lett 115 (22):228304.  https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.228304 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Majumdar A, Butola BS, Srivastava A (2014) Development of soft composite materials with improved impact resistance using Kevlar fabric and nano-silica based shear thickening fluid. Mater Des 54:295–300.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2013.07.086 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Manero O, Pérez-López JH, Escalante JI, Puig JE, Bautista F (2007) A thermodynamic approach to rheology of complex fluids: The generalized BMP model. J Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech 146(1-3):22–29.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnnfm.2007.02.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Maranzano BJ, Wagner NJ (2002) Flow-small angle neutron scattering measurements of colloidal dispersion microstructure evolution through the shear thickening transition. J Chem Phys 117(22):10291–10302.  https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1519253 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mari R, Seto R, Morris JF, Denn MM (2014) Shear thickening, frictionless and frictional rheologies in non-Brownian suspensions. J Rheol, 58(6),  https://doi.org/10.1122/1.4890747
  39. Mewis J, Wagner NJ (2012) Colloidal suspension rheology. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  40. Nguyen HV, Andreassen E, Kristiansen H, Johannessen R, Hoivik N, Aasmundtveit KE (2013) Rheological characterization of a novel isotropic conductive adhesive – epoxy filled with metal-coated polymer spheres. Mater Des 46:784–793.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2012.11.036 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Park SJ, Yoo WS (2008) Rollover analysis for the body section structure of a large bus using beam and non-linear spring elements. Proc Inst Mech Eng D J Automob Eng 222(6):955–962.  https://doi.org/10.1243/09544070JAUTO474 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Raghavan SR, Khan SA (1997) Shear-thickening response of fumed silica suspensions under steady and oscillatory shear. J Colloid Interface Sci 185(1):57–67.  https://doi.org/10.1006/jcis.1996.4581 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Seto R, Mari R, Morris JF, Denn MM (2013) Discontinuous shear thickening of frictional hard-sphere suspensions. Phys Rev Lett, 111(21),  https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.218301
  44. Tian T, Nakano M (2017) Design and testing of a rotational brake with shear thickening fluids. Smart Mater Struct 26(3):035038.  https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-665X/aa5a2c CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Tian T, Peng G, Li W, Ding J, Nakano M (2015) Experimental and modelling study of the effect of temperature on shear thickening fluids. Korea-Aust Rheol J 27(1):17–24.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13367-015-0003-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Turcio M, Chávez AE, López-Aguilar J, Vargas RO, Capella A, Manero O (2018) Dissipative structures in shear-thickening complex fluids. Phys Fluids 30(11):114104.  https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5051768 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Vázquez-Quesada A, Wagner NJ, Ellero M (2017) Planar channel flow of a discontinuous shear-thickening model fluid: Theory and simulation. Phys Fluids 29(10):103104.  https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4997053 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Wagner NJ, Brady JF (2009) Shear thickening in colloidal dispersions. Phys Today 62(10):27–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Yang YB, Chen G, Li L, Li WH (2006) On the extended Rutgers–Delaware rule for mr suspensions under magnetic fields. Int J Mod Phys B 20(05):579–592.  https://doi.org/10.1142/S0217979206033449 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Zhang G, Wu J, Tang L, Li J, Lai G, Zhong M (2014) Rheological behaviors of fumed silica/low molecular weight hydroxyl silicone oil. J Appl Polym Sci 131(17):n/a.  https://doi.org/10.1002/app.40722 Google Scholar
  51. Zhang SS, Zhang YJ, Wang HW (2010) Effect of particle size distributions on the rheology of Sn/Ag/Cu lead-free solder pastes. Mater Des 31(1):594–598.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2009.07.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Zhang XZ, Li WH, Gong XL (2008) The rheology of shear thickening fluid (STF) and the dynamic performance of an STF-filled damper. Smart Mater Struct 17(3):035027.  https://doi.org/10.1088/0964-1726/17/3/035027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andres G. Moron
    • 1
    Email author
  • Maria Jesus L. Boada
    • 1
  • Beatriz L. Boada
    • 1
  • Vicente Diaz
    • 1
  1. 1.Mechanical Engineering DepartmentUniversidad Carlos III de MadridMadridSpain

Personalised recommendations