Experimental evaluation of a novel modification of anionic guar gum with maleic anhydride for fracturing fluid
- 14 Downloads
The content of insoluble substance in guar gum solution is high and its temperature resistance is poor. A novel anionic guar gum (GG) derivative was developed and grafted by modification with maleic anhydride. Compared with guar gum, the insoluble content of MAG solution decreased from 13 to 5%, the decomposition temperature of MAG increased from 285 to 308, and the viscoelasticity of MAG gel has been enhanced, especially elasticity. The rheological tests show that the corresponding fracturing fluid belongs to a non-Newtonian pseudoplastic one and the viscosity could maintain 50 mPa∙s for 2 h under conditions of 150 °C and 170 s−1, which can be applied in a high-temperature well. It is noteworthy that the synthetic protocol of maleate esters guar gum (MAG) is easily available, low cost, and practical. It is conducive to the industrial application of MAG. The work showed a great significance to the modification of GG with acid anhydride for fracturing fluid.
KeywordsGuar gum Modification Maleic anhydride Rheology Fracturing fluid
The research is supported by Sichuan Youth Science & Technology Foundation (2017JQ0010), National High Technology Research & Development Program (2016ZX05053), Key Fund Project of Educational Commission of Sichuan Province (16CZ0008), Explorative Project Fund (G201601) of State Key Laboratory of Oil, and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation (Southwest Petroleum University).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Britt LK (1985) Optimized oilwell fracturing of moderate-permeability reservoirs.SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. Society of Petroleum Engineers (September). https://doi.org/10.2118/14371-MS
- Dawson JC, Le HV, Kesavan S (2003) Polymer expansion for oil and gas recovery. U.S. Patent No. 6,649,572. 18 NovGoogle Scholar
- Dawson JC, Le HV, Kesavan S (2006) Oil and gas recovery from subterranean formations. U.S. Patent No. 7,012,044. 14 MarGoogle Scholar
- Fu D, Federov A (2008) Crosslinked polymer solutions and methods of use. U.S. Patent Application No. 11/672,829Google Scholar
- Gong RY, Wu WH, Shi XF (2009) Synthesis and properties of hydrophobiclly modified hydroxypropyl guar gum. Polym Mater Sci Eng 25:132–134Google Scholar
- Kinsey EW, Harry DN, Dixon GR, Malekahmadi F, Dismuke KI (2010) Preparation of guar suspension from guar splits. U.S. Patent No. 7,790,774. 7 SepGoogle Scholar
- Kramer J, Chu A, Prudhomme RK (1989) Rheology and molecular structure of HPG gels. SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition.Society of Petroleum Engineers (October). https://doi.org/10.2118/15632-MS
- Ran Li (2017). Development and evaluation of high-temperature silanization and etherification guar based fracturing fluids[D]. Southwest Petroleum UniversityGoogle Scholar
- Mao J, Wang D, Yang X, Zhang Z, Yang B, Zhang C, Zhao J (2018a) Experimental study on high temperature resistance aluminum-crosslinked non-aqueous fracturing fluids. J Mol Liq 258:202–210. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2018.03.032
- Mao J, Zhang H, Zhang W, Fan J, Zhang C, Zhao J (2018b) Dissymmetric beauty: a novel design of heterogemini viscoelastic surfactant for the clean fracturing fluid. J Ind Eng Chem 60:133–142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2017.10.048
- Melbouci M, Nguyen TT, Young TS (2010) Oxidized guar for oilfield servicing fluids. U.S. Patent No. 7,851,416. 14 DecGoogle Scholar
- Moorhouse R, Harry D, Matthews L, Merchant U (1998) Inter-relationships between Polymer/Crosslinker Chemistry and performance in [C]//SPE India Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition. Society of Petroleum.Engineers. https://doi.org/10.2118/39531-MS
- Putzig DE (2010) Process to prepare borozirconate solution and use as a cross-linker in hydraulic fracturing fluids. U.S. Patent No. 7795190. 14 SepGoogle Scholar
- Zhang Z, Li X (2016) The shear mechanisms of natural fractures during the hydraulic stimulation of shale gas reservoirs. Materials 9(9):713. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9090713
- Zhang Z, Mao J, Yang X, Zhao J, Smith GS (2016) Advances in waterless fracturing technologies for unconventional reservoirs. Energy Sources, Part A 1–15Google Scholar
- Zou S, Wang K, Yin Q, Jiang B (2003) Recent progress in modification of guar gum. Chem Res Appl 15(3):317–320. Article number:1004-1656(2003)03-0317-04Google Scholar