Rheologica Acta

, Volume 56, Issue 3, pp 177–188 | Cite as

A modern look on yield stress fluids

  • Alexander MalkinEmail author
  • Valery Kulichikhin
  • Sergey Ilyin
Original Contribution


A concept of viscoplasticity advanced exactly one century ago by Bingham appears very fruitful because there are many natural and artificial materials that demonstrate viscoplastic behavior, i.e., they are able to pass from a solid to a liquid state under the influence of applied stress. However, although this transition was originally considered as a jump-like phenomenon occurring at a certain stress—the yield stress—numerous subsequent studies have shown that the real situation is more complicated. A long-term discussion about the possibility of flow at low stresses less than the yield stress came to today’s conclusion denying this possibility as being opposite to the existence of the maximal Newtonian viscosity in viscoelastic polymeric fluids. So, there is a contradiction between the central dogma of rheology which says that “everything flows” and the alleged impossibility for flow at a solid-like state of viscoplastic fluids. Then, the concept of the fragile destruction of an inner structure responsible for a solid-like state at the definite (yield) stress was replaced by an understanding of the yielding as a transition extending over some stress range and occurring in time. So, instead of the yield stress, yielding is characterized by the dependence of durability (or time-to-break) on the applied stress. In this review, experimental facts and the new understanding of yielding as a kinetic process are discussed. Besides, some other alternative methods for measuring the yield stress are considered.


Colloidal systems Solid-to-fluid transition Yield stress Yielding Viscoplasticity Viscoelasticity Rheology Thixotropy Maximal Newtonian viscosity Durability 



The authors are grateful to the Russian Foundation for Basic Research for financial support (Grant No. 16-03-00259).


  1. Abduraghimova LA, Rehbinder PA, Serb-Serbina NN (1955) Elastic-viscous properties of thixotropic structures in aqueous suspensions of bentonite clays. Colloid J 17:184–195 in RussianGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexandrou AN, McGilvreay TM, Burgos G (2001) Steady Herschel-Bulkley fluid flow in three-dimensional expansions. J Non-Newton Fluid Mech 100:77–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aposolidis AJ, Armstrong MJ, Beris AN (2015) Modeling of human blood rheology in transient shear flows. J Rheol 59:275–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barnes HA (1995) A review of the slip (wall depletion) of polymer solutions, emulsions and particle suspensions in viscometers: its cause, character, and cure. J Non-newton Fluid Mech 56:221–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barnes HA (2007) The ‘yield stress myth?’ paper—21 years on. Appl Rheol 17:43110 5 pagesGoogle Scholar
  6. Barnes HA, Walters K (1985) The yield stress myth. Rheol Acta 24:323–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bingham ES (1916) An investigation of the laws of plastic flow. Bull US Bur Stand 13:309–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bueche F (1958) Tensile strength of plastics: effects of flaws and chain relaxation. J Appl Phys 29:1231–1235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Buscall R, McGowan JL, Morton-Jones AJ (1993) The rheology of concentrated dispersions of weakly attracting colloidal particles with and without wall slip. J Rheol 37:621–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Buzza DMA, Cates ME (1993) Osmotic pressure of dense emulsion systems: the role of double-layer forces. Langmuir 9:2264–2269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Caton F, Baravian C (2008) Plastic behavior of some yield stress fluids: from creep to long-time yield. Rheol Acta 47:601–607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Coussot P (2014) Yield stress fluid flows: a review of experimental data. J Non-Newton Fluid Mech 211:31–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Coussot P, Nguyen QD, Huynh HT, Bonn D (2002a) Viscosity bifurcation in thixotropic, yielding fluids. J Rheol 46:573–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Coussot P, Nguyen QD, Huynh HT, Bonn D (2002b) Avalanche behavior in yield stress fluids. Phys Rev Lett 88:175501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Coussot P, Tabuteau H, Chateau X, Tocquer L, Ovarlez G (2006) Aging and solid or liquid behavior in pastes. J Rheol 50:975–994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Denn MM, Bonn D (2011) Issues in the flow of yield-stress liquids. Rheol Acta 50:307–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Derkach SR (2009) Rheology of emulsions. Adv Coll Interface Sci 151:1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dimitriou CD, Ewoldt RH, McKinley GH (2013) Describing and predicting the constitutive response of yield stress fluids using large amplitude oscillatory shear stress (LAOSress). J Rheol 57:27–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dimitrova TD, Leal-Calderon F, Gurkov TD, Campbell B (2001) Disjoining pressure vs. thickness isotherms of thin emulsion films stabilized by proteins. Langmuir 17:8069–8077CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ewoldt RH (2013) Defining nonlinear rheological material function for oscillatory shear. J Rheol 57:177–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Foudazi R, Qavi S, Masalova I, Malkin AY (2015) Physical chemistry of highly concentrated emulsions. Adv Colloid Interf Sci 220:78–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Guerrero A, Partal P, Gallegos C (2000) Linear and non-linear viscoelasticity of low-in-cholesterol mayonnaise. Food Sci Technol Intern 6:165–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Guillermic R-M, Volland A, Faure S, Imbert B, Drenckhan W (2013) Shaping complex fluids—when foams stand up for themselves. J Rheol 57:333–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Heymann L, Peukert S, Aksel N (2002) On the solid-liquid transition of concentrated suspensions in transient shear flow. Rheol Acta 41:307–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Huang N, Ovarlez G, Bertrand F, Rodts S, Coussot P, Bonn D (2005) Flow of wet granular materials. Phys Rev Lett 94:028301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hyun K, Wilhelm M, Klein CO, Cho KS, Nam JG, Ahn KH, Lee SJ, Ewoldt RH, McKinley GH (2011) A review of nonlinear oscillatory shear tests: analysis and application of large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS). Prog Polym Sci 36:1697–1753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ilyin S, Roumyantseva T, Spiridonova V, Frenkin E, Malkin A, Kulichikhin V (2011) Gels of cysteine/Ag-based dilute colloid systems and their rheological properties. Soft Matter 7:9090–9103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ilyin SO, Malkin AY, Kulichikhin VG (2012) Rheological peculiarities of concentrated suspensions. Colloid J 74:492–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ilyin SO, Arinina MP, Mamulat YS, Malkin AY, Kulichikhin VG (2014) Rheological properties of road Bitumens modified with polymer and solid nanosized additives. Colloid J 76:461–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kapur PC, Scales PJ, Boger DV, Healy TW (1997) A theoretical frame-work for the yield stress of suspensions loaded with size distributed particles. AICHE J 43:1171–1179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Knowlton ED, Pine DJ, Cipelletti L (2014) A microscopic view of the yielding transition in concentrated emulsions. Soft Matter 10:6931–6940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lester DR, Rudman M, Scales PJ (2010) Macroscopic dynamics of flocculated colloidal suspensions. Chem Eng Sci 65:6362–6378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lester DR, Buscall R, Stickland AD, Scales PJ (2014) Wall adhesion and constitutive modeling of strong colloidal gels. J Rheol 58:1247–1276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lewis JA (2000) Colloidal processing o ceramics. J Amer Ceramic Soc 83:2341–2359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Malkin AY (2013) Non-Newtonian viscosity in steady-state shear flows. J Non-Newton Fluid Mech 192:48–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Malkin AY, Kulichikhin VG (2015a) Structure and rheology of highly concentrated emulsions. Modern view. Russ Chem Rev 84:803–825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Malkin AY, Kulichikhin VG (2015b) Spatial-temporal phenomena in the flows of multi-component materials. Appl Rheol 25:35358Google Scholar
  38. Malkin AY, Masalova I (2007) Shear and normal stresses in flow of highly concentrated emulsions. J Non-Newton Fluid Mech 147:65–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Malkin AY, Sabsai OY, Verbitskaya EA, Zolotarev YA, Vinogradov GV (1976) Time effects in transition through the yield stress for disperse systems. Colloid J 38:181–182 in RussianGoogle Scholar
  40. Malkin AY, Semakov AV, Kulichikhin VG (2010) Self-organization in the flow of complex fluids (colloid and polymer systems) part 1: experimental evidence. Adv Colloid and Interface Sci 157:75–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Malkin AY, Ilyin SO, Semakov AV, Kulichikhin VG (2012) Viscoplasticity and stratified flow of colloid suspensions. Soft Matter 8:2607–2617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Malkin AY, Ilyin SO, Roumyantseva TB, Kulichikhin VG (2013) Rheological evidence of gel formation in dilute poly(acrylnitrile) solutions. Macromolecules 46:257–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Martínez-Boza F, Partal P, Navarro FJ, Gallegos C (2001) Rheology and microstructure of asphalt binders. Rheol Acta 40:135–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Masalova I, Malkin AY (2007) Rheology of highly concentrated emulsions—concentration and droplet size dependencies. Appl Rheol 17:42250–42258Google Scholar
  45. Masalova I, Taylor M, Kharatiyan E, Malkin AY (2005) Rheopexy in highly concentrated emulsions. J Rheol 49:839–849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Masalova I, Malkin AY, Foudazi R (2008) Yield stress of emulsions and suspensions as measured in steady shearing and in oscillations. Appl Rheol 18:44790 8 pagesGoogle Scholar
  47. Masalova I, Foudazi R, Malkin AY (2011) The rheology of highly concentrated emulsions stabilized with different surfactants. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 375:76–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mason TG, Weitz DA (1995) Optical measurements of frequency-dependent linear viscoelastic moduli of complex fluids. Phys Rev Lett 74:1250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Mason TG, Bibette J, Weitz DA (1995) Elasticity of compressed emulsions. Phys Rev Lett 75:2051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mason TG, Bibette J, Weitz DA (1996) Yielding and flow of monodispersed emulsions. J Colloid & Interface Sci 179:439–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Mewis J, Wagner NJ (2009) Thixotropy. Adv Coll Interface Sci 147-148:214–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Møller PCF, Mewis J, Bonn D (2006) Yield stress and thixotropy: on the difficulty of measuring yield stresses in practice. Soft Matter 2:274–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Møller PCF, Fall A, Bonn D (2009) Origin of apparent viscosity in yield stress fluids below yielding. Europhys Lett 87:38004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mougel J, Alvarez O, Baravian C, Caton F, Marchal P, Stébé M-J et al (2006) Aging of an unstable w/o gel emulsion with a nonionic surfactant. Rheol Acta 45:555–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mujumdar A, Beris AN, Metzner AB (2002) Transient phenomena in thixotropic systems. J Non-Newton Fluid Mech 102:157–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Nguen QD, Boger DV (1992) Measuring the flow properties of yield stress fluids. Ann Rev Fluid Mech 24:47–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Otsubo Y, Prud’homme RK (1994) Rheology of oil-in-water emulsions. Rheol Acta 33:29–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ovarlez G, Barral Q, Coussot P (2010) Three-dimensional jamming and flows of soft glassy materials. J Nat Materials 9:115–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Pal R (2006) Rheology of high internal phase ratio emulsions. Food Hydrocoll 20:997–1005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Papanastasiou TC (1987) Flow of materials with yield stress. J Rheol 31:385–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Pavlov VP, Vinogradov GV (1966) Generalized rheological characteristics of plastic disperse systems. Colloid J 28:424–430 – in RussianGoogle Scholar
  62. Pawlow WP, Winogradow GW, Sinizyn WW, Deinega JF (1961) Viskose Eigenschaften von plastisch-dispersen Systemen. Rheol Acta 1:470–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Pons R, Solans C, Tadros TF (1995) Rheological behavior of highly concentrated oil-inwater (o/w) emulsions. Langmuir 11:1966–1971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Princen HM, Kiss AD (1986) Rheology of foams and highly concentrated emulsions III static shear modulus. J Colloid Interface Sci 112:427–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Ravindranath S, Wang S-Q (2008) Universal scaling characteristics of stress overshoot in startup shear of entangled polymer solutions. J Rheol 52:681–695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Regel’ VR, Slutsker AI, Tomashevskii AE (1974) Kinetic nature of the strength of solid bodies. Nauka, Moscow 560 pagesGoogle Scholar
  67. Romero A, Cordobés F, Puppo MC, Guerrero A, Bengoechea C (2008) Rheology and droplet size distribution of emulsions stabilized by crayfish flour. Food Hydrocoll 22:1033–1043CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Sánchez MC, Valencia C, Ciruelos A, De Latorre A, Gallegos (2003) Rheological properties of tomato paste: influence of the addition of tomato slurry. J Food Sci 68:551–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Scales PJ, Kapur PC, Johnson SB, Healy TW (1998) The shear yield stress of partially flocculated colloidal suspensions. AICHE J 44:538–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Scheffold F, Wilking JN, Haberko J, Cardinaux F, Mason TG (2014) The jamming elasticity of emulsions stabilized by ionic surfactants. Soft Matter 10:5040–5044CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Sestak J, Charles ME, Cawkwell MG, Houska M (1987) Start-up of gelled crude oil pipelines. J Pipelines 6:15–24Google Scholar
  72. Seth JR, Cloitre M, Bonnecaze RT (2008) Influence of short-range forces on wall-slip in microgel pastes. J Rheol 52:1241–1268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Singh P, Fogler HS, Nagarajan N (1999) Prediction of the wax content of the incipient wax-oil gel in a pipeline: an application of the contolled-stress rheometer. J Rheol 43:1427–1459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Stickland AD, Buscall R (2009) Whither compressional rheology? J Non-Newton Fluid Mech 157:151–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Stokes JR, Telford JH, Williamson A-M (2005) The flowability of ice suspensions. J Rheol 49:139–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Tassin J-F (2006) Shear induced aggregation of dilute suspensions of non-Brownian particles in a polymer matrix. AERC-2006, Hersonisos, Crete, Greece, p. 24AbsractGoogle Scholar
  77. Terech P, Friol S (2007) Rheometry of an androstanol steroid derivative paramagnetic organogel. Methodology for a comparison with a fatty acid organogel. Tetrahedron 63:7366–7374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Uhlherr PHT, Guo J, Tiu C, Zhang X-M, Zhou JZ-Q, Fang T-N (2005) The shear-induced solid-liquid transition in yield stress materials with chemically different structures. J Non-Newton Fluid Mech 125:101–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Vinogradov GV. Klimov KI (1950) Temperature characteristics of elasto-plastic properties of greases. Reports of the USSR Academy of Sciences 71:307–310 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  80. Vinogradov GV (1952) Greases as disperse systems. Adv in Chem 21:758–779 – in RussianGoogle Scholar
  81. Wachs A, Vinay G, Frigaard I (2009) A 1.5D numerical model for the start up of weakly compressible flow of a viscoplastic and thixotropic fluid in pipelines. J Non-Newton Fluid Mech 159:81–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Walls HJ, Caines SB, Sanchez AM, Khan SA (2003) Yield stress and wall slip phenomena in colloidal silica gels. J Rheol 47:847–869CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Wardhaugh LT, Boger DV (1991) The measurement and description of the yielding behavior of waxy crude oil. J Rheol 35:1121–1156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Webber RM (1999) Low temperature rheology of lubricating mineral oils: effect of cooling rate and wax crystallization on flow properties of base oils. J Rheol 43:911–931CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Weiss RG (2014) The past, present, and future of molecular gels. What is the status of the field, and where is it going? J Am Chem Soc 136:7519–7530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Winter HH (1987) Can the gel point of a cross-linking polymer be detected by the G’-G” crossover? Polym Engng Sci 27:1698–1702Google Scholar
  87. Woodcook LV (2012) Percolation transitions in the hard-sphere fluid. AICHE J 58:1610–1618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Zaccone A, Wu H, Gentili D,M, Morbidelli M (2009) Theory of activated-rate processes under shear with application to shear-induced aggregation of colloids. Phys Rev E 80:051404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Zhou Z, Solomon MJ, Scales PJ, DV Boger DV (1999) The yield stress of concentrated suspensions of size distributed particles. J Rheol 43:651–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander Malkin
    • 1
    Email author
  • Valery Kulichikhin
    • 1
  • Sergey Ilyin
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Petrochemical SynthesisRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations