Rheologica Acta

, Volume 50, Issue 4, pp 389–402 | Cite as

The influence of temperature on rheological properties of blood mixtures with different volume expanders—implications in numerical arterial hemodynamics simulations

  • Andreja Zupančič ValantEmail author
  • Lovro Žiberna
  • Yannis Papaharilaou
  • Andreas Anayiotos
  • Georgios C. Georgiou
Original Contribution


During the complicated cardiac surgery on a non-beating heart with cardiopulmonary bypass, protection of the heart is accomplished by injecting cold cardioplegic solutions. In most forms of circulatory shock, it is necessary to immediately restore the circulating volume. Intravenous solutions of volume expanders, such as hydroxyethyl starch and dextrans, are used to increase the volume of fluid in the circulating blood. In this work, blood samples of six donors were obtained and used to prepare mixtures with different volume expanders in concentrations ranging from 10 to 50 vol./vol.%. The flow curves of all mixtures in the temperature range from 4°C to 37°C were constructed and fitted to the Herschel–Bulkley model, in order to extract the shear thinning and yield stress parameters. To assess the influence of the observed changes in the rheological properties of blood on the hemodynamics in arterial vasculature, a realistic three-dimensional rigid-wall computational model was constructed from MRI images of the right carotid bifurcation obtained in vivo from a healthy male volunteer. The time-varying flow field was numerically computed using the Newtonian model as well as the Herschel–Bulkley model with the Papanastasiou regularization. The numerical simulations indicate only moderate changes in the time-averaged flow field that become accentuated when the instantaneous flow field is considered. We also found that although the influence of temperature, hematocrit, and volume expanders on hemodynamics is significant, this can primarily be attributed to the changes in the nominal viscosity of the flow medium.


Hemorheology Blood Volume expanders Herschel–Bulkley model Hemodynamics 



The project was partially funded by two Cyprus–Slovenia grants from the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation and the Slovenia Research Agency (Projects CY-SLO/0407/05 and CY-SLO/0609/01).


  1. Aristokleous N, Seimenis I, Papaharilaou Y, Georgiou G, Brott BC, Anayiotos AS (2011) Effect of posture change on the geometric features of the healthy carotid bifurcation. IEEE Trans Inf Technol Biomed (in press)Google Scholar
  2. Barth TJ, Jespersen D (1989) The design and application of upwind schemes on unstructured meshes. AIAA 27th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nevada. Technical Report AIAA-89-0366Google Scholar
  3. Baskurt OK, Meiselman HJ (2003) Blood rheology and hemodynamics. Semin Thromb Hemost 29:435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Caro CG, Fitz-Gerald JM, Schroter RC (1971) Atheroma and arterial wall shear. Observation, correlation and proposal of a shear dependent mass transfer mechanism for atherogenesis. Proc Roy Soc B 177:109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Eckmann DM, Bowers S, Stecker M, Cheung AT (2000) Hematocrit, volume expander, temperature, and shear rate effects on blood viscosity. Anesth Analg 91:539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Giordana S, Sherwin SJ, Peiro J, Doorly DJ, Papaharilaou Y, Caro CG, Watkins N, Cheshire N, Jackson M, Bicknall C, Zervas V (2005) Automated classification of peripheral distal by-pass geometries reconstructed from medical data. J Biomech 38:47Google Scholar
  7. Grocott MPW, Mythen MGM, Gan Tong J (2005) Perioperative fluid management and clinical outcomes in adults. Anesth Analg 100:1093CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Issa RI (1986) Solution of implicitly discretized fluid flow equations by operator splitting. J Comput Phys 62:40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kim S (2002) A study of non-Newtonian viscosity and yield stress of blood in a scanning capillary-tube rheometer. PhD Thesis, Drexel University, USAGoogle Scholar
  10. Kim S, Namgung B, Kai Ong P, Cho YI, Chun KJ, Lim D (2009) Determination of rheological properties of whole blood with a scanning capillary-tube rheometer using constitutive models. J Mech Sci Tech 23:1718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Koppensteiner R (1996) Blood rheology in emergency medicine. Semin Thromb Hemost 22:89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kwaan (2010) Role of plasma proteins in whole blood viscosity: a brief clinical review. Clin Hemorheol Microcirc 44(3): 167Google Scholar
  13. Malek AM, Alper SL, Izumo S (1999) Hemodynamic shear stress and its role in atherosclerosis. J Am Med Assoc 282:2035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mitsoulis E (2007) Flows of viscoplastic materials: Models and computations. Rheology Reviews, The British Society of Rheology, 135Google Scholar
  15. Neff TA, Fischler L, Mark M, Stockler R, Reinhart WH (2005) The influence of two different Hydroxyethyl Starch solutions (6% HES 130/0.4 and 200/0.5) on blood viscosity. Anesth Analg 100:1773CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Neofytou P (2004) Comparison of blood rheological models for physiological flow simulation. Biorheology 41:693Google Scholar
  17. Neofytou P, Drikakis D (2003) Effects of blood models on flows through a stenosis. Int J Numer Methods Fluids 43:597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Papaharilaou Y, Sherwin SJ, Doorly DJ (2001) Assessing the accuracy of two-dimensional phase-contrast MRI measurements of complex unsteady flows. J Magn Reson Imaging 14:714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Papaharilaou Y, Ekaterinaris J, Manousaki E, Katsamouris A (2007) A decoupled fluid structure approach of estimating wall stress in abdominal aortic aneurysms. J Biomech 40:367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Papanastasiou TC (1987) Flows of materials with yield. J Rheol 31:385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Picart C, Piau JM, Galliard H, Carpentier P (1998) Human blood shear yield stress and its hematocrit dependence. J Rheol 42:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Rand PW, Lacombe E, Hunt HE, Austin WH (1964) Viscosity of normal human blood under normothermic and hypothermic conditions. J Appl Physiol 19:117Google Scholar
  23. Reed RK, Lilleaasen P, Lindberg H, Stokke O (1985), Dextran 70 versus donor plasma as colloid in open-heart surgery under extreme haemodilution. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 45:269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Riback W (2004) Plasma expanders: hydroxyethyl starches vs. gelatine
  25. Salazar Vázquez BY, Cabrales P, Intaglietta M (2008) The beneficial effects of increasing blood viscosity. Yearb Intensive Care Emerg Med 2008:691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sankar DS, Hemalathan K (2007) Non-linear mathematical models for blood flow through tapered tubes. Appl Math Comput 188:567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sankar DS, Lee U (2008) Two-fluid Herschel–Bulkley model for blood flow in catheterized arteries. J Mech Sci Tech 22:1008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sankar DS, Lee U (2009) Two-fluid non-Newtonian models for blood flow in catheterized arteries—a comparative study. J Mech Sci Tech 23:2444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Shibeshi SS, Collins WE (2005) The rheology of blood flow in a branched arterial system. Appl Rheol 15:398Google Scholar
  30. Womersley JR (1955) Method for the calculation of velocity, rate of flow and viscous drag in arteries when the pressure gradient is known. J Physiol 127:553Google Scholar
  31. Yeow YL, Wickramasinghe SR, Leong YK, Han B (2002) Model-independent relationships between hematocrit, blood viscosity, and yield stress derived from Couette viscometry data. Biotechnol Prog 18:1068CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andreja Zupančič Valant
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lovro Žiberna
    • 2
  • Yannis Papaharilaou
    • 3
  • Andreas Anayiotos
    • 4
  • Georgios C. Georgiou
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Chemical, Biochemical and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of LjubljanaLjubljanaSlovenia
  2. 2.Institute of Pharmacology and Experimental Toxicology, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of LjubljanaLjubljanaSlovenia
  3. 3.Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas (FORTH)Institute of Applied and Computational MathematicsHeraklionGreece
  4. 4.Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science and EngineeringCyprus University of TechnologyLimassolCyprus
  5. 5.Department of Mathematics and StatisticsUniversity of CyprusNicosiaCyprus

Personalised recommendations