Polymeric liquids in extension: fluid mechanics or rheometry?
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We use a transient 3D free surface finite element method to simulate flow of entangled polymer fluids in the dual cylinder wind-up extensional rheometer. The constitutive equations are K-BKZ integral representations of the Doi–Edwards models with and without the independent alignment approximation (IA). It is demonstrated that the actual kinematics in this rheometer is a mixture of planar and uniaxial extension. Moreover, the ratio of planar to uniaxial deformation is highly dependent upon whether IA is invoked. Without IA, the flow has a tendency toward planar extension, while it tends to be more uniaxial with IA invoked. As a second illustration of the techniques, we simulate the phenomenon of delayed rupture after rapid extension of entangled polymer systems. It is demonstrated that this phenomenon can be explained on the basis of the Doi–Edwards model in terms of a Considere-type instability after chain stretch relaxation.
KeywordsExtensional flow Rotational rheometer Delayed rupture K-BKZ FEM
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