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Thermoreversible gelation and self-assembly behavior of dibenzylidene sorbitol in ternary solvent mixtures

  • Jerin John
  • Kurniawan Ardhianto
  • Purushothaman Nandagopalan
  • Seung Wook BaekEmail author
Original Contribution
  • 18 Downloads

Abstract

The self-assembly behavior of 1,3:2,4-dibenzylidene-D-sorbitol (DBS) in ternary solvents has been systematically investigated for the use of kerosene gel in the aerospace propulsion. DBS forms a yield viscoelastic gels in a wide range of kerosene/hexanol/DMSO solvent concentrations despite the fact that DBS is incapable of gelling kerosene fuel. The gelation behavior of DBS in the solvent mixture is predicted using the Hansen solubility parameters. The polar parameter (δP) and hydrogen bonding (δH) parameter lie in the range of 1.96 ≤ δP ≤ 4.30 J0.5cm−1.5 and 3.40 ≤ δH ≤ 7.30 J0.5cm−1.5 respectively for the formation of gel in kerosene/hexanol/DMSO system. The phase transition temperature (Tf) of DBS gel is determined using temperature sweep measurement and predicted using modified Friedrich (MF) relation which is found be in close agreement with an average deviation of ± 10 °C. However, the deviation becomes larger when δP > 4.30 and δH > 7.30, in other words, with increase in the solvent polarity. As the solvent polarity or concentration of hexanol increases in the mixture, the gels exhibit a low Tf and \( {G}_{max}^{\prime } \) value because of the hindrance of self-assembling ability of DBS due to the intermolecular hydrogen bonding between DBS and solvents. The viscoelastic behavior of DBS gels is investigated using the oscillation sweep measurements and the storage modulus G is found to be higher than the loss modulus G for larger stress amplitude and frequency, indicating a solid-like nature of the gels. Furthermore, the microstructure analysis shows the presence of 3D nano-fibrillar morphology, which further depends on the solvent polarity. Microstructure changes from ‘rope-like’ fiber aggregate (Hex100; CH = 88 wt%) to a ‘web-like’ structures (Hex25; CH = 25 wt%), when the CH is decreased in the solvent mixture.

Keywords

Kerosene gel Dibenzylidene sorbitol (DBS) Nanofibrils Viscoelastic Gel fuel 

Notes

Funding information

This work was supported by a National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) (No. 2014R1A2A2A01007347). Mr. Kurniawan Ardhianto was provided scholarship in his study from Indonesian Endowment Fund for Education (LPDP). Dr. Purushothaman Nandagoplan would like to thnak his present affilation School of Aeronautical Sciences, Hindustan Institute of Technology and Science, Chennai, India. Dr. Jerin John would like to thank Dr. Gi Su Park, Assistant Professor, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Republic of Korea for his extensive support of this research work.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jerin John
    • 1
  • Kurniawan Ardhianto
    • 1
  • Purushothaman Nandagopalan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Seung Wook Baek
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Aerospace Engineering, School of Mechanical and Aerospace EngineeringKorea Advanced Institute of Science and TechnologyDaejeonRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Aeronautical EngineeringHindustan Institute of Technology and ScienceChennaiIndia

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