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Colloid and Polymer Science

, Volume 296, Issue 8, pp 1323–1332 | Cite as

Controlled synthesis of modified polyacrylamide grafted nano-sized silica supported Pd nanoparticles via RAFT polymerization through “grafting to” approach: application to the Heck reaction

  • Soheila Ghasemi
  • Saiede Karim
Original Contribution

Abstract

Polyacrylamide grafted onto silica nanoparticles (nano-SiO2-g-PAAm) was prepared through “grafting to” approach via controlled reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization system with defined molecular weight and graft density. Modification of the nano-SiO2-g-PAAm with ethanolamine and subsequent reaction with chlorodiphenylphosphine (ClPPh2) was produced polymer-grafted silica with phosphinite functionality which was converted to Pd catalyst through the reaction with Pd(OAc)2. The catalyst was characterized using ICP, FT-IR, TGA, SEM, and DLS methods properly. Dispersion of palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) in the polymer matrix (10–15-nm range) and existence of Pd in zero oxidation state was verified by TEM and XRD techniques. The catalyst demonstrated activity in the Mizoroki-Heck cross-coupling reaction of varied iodoarenes including electron poor, electron rich, and ortho substituted and heterocycles with olefins efficiently. Reusing of the Pd catalyst was performed at least five times in repeating runs without considerable palladium leaching and change of the catalyst function and structure.

Graphical abstract

Organic-inorganic hybrid catalytic system composed of modified polyacrylamide brushes grafted onto nano-sized silica supported Pd nanoparticles was prepared via RAFT polymerization method through “grafting to” approach. This heterogeneous catalyst was applied in the Mizoroki-Heck reaction of various iodoarenes appropriately. The catalyst was reused at least five times in repeating sequences.

Keywords

Polymer-grafted silica RAFT polymerization Palladium catalyst The Heck coupling 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Valuable comments and cooperation of Prof. B. Tamami from Shiraz University is greatly appreciated by the authors.

Funding information

Research Council of Shiraz University is acknowledged for partial supporting of the present work.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

396_2018_4349_MOESM1_ESM.docx (3.5 mb)
ESM 1 Supplementary material include synthesis of polyacrylamide using RAFT technique (PAAm-CTA), characterization data of PAAm-CTA (FT-IR and 1H-NMR spectra) and FT-IR spectrum of nano-sized SiO2-g-PAAm, FT-IR spectrum of nano-sized SiO2-g-hydroxyl modified PAAm, FT-IR spectrum of nano-sized SiO2-g-phosphinite modified PAAm and original 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra of Heck coupling products are accessible at http://.... as PDF file. (DOCX 3539 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, College of SciencesShiraz UniversityShirazIran

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