Colloid and Polymer Science

, Volume 296, Issue 3, pp 413–426 | Cite as

Nitrogen-containing porous carbon materials by twin polymerization

  • Christian Schliebe
  • Julian Noll
  • Sebastian Scharf
  • Thomas Gemming
  • Andreas Seifert
  • Stefan Spange
  • Daniel Lehmann
  • Dietrich R. T. Zahn
  • Benjamin Fiedler
  • Joachim Friedrich
  • Thomas Blaudeck
  • Heinrich LangEmail author
Original Contribution


The preparation of Si(OCH2 c C4H3NR)4 (5, R = Me; 6, R = H) by the reaction of 2-HOCH2- c C4H3NR (3, R = Me; 4, R = H) with SiCl4 in the ratio of 4:1 in the presence of NEt3 is described. The thermal behavior of twin monomers 5 and 6 was investigated by thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. Compound 6 shows with 93 °C the lowest polymerization temperature for twin monomers reported so far. In addition to the thermal-induced twin polymerization of 5 and 6, the acidic initiation and copolymerization with 2,2′-spiro-bi[4H-1,3,2-benzodioxasiline] was investigated. The resulting hybrid materials were characterized by 1H, 13C{1H}, and 29Si{1H} solid-state NMR spectroscopy confirming the transformation of the SiOCH2 moieties into CH2 groups enabling the formation of the respective polymers. These results are supported by HAADF-STEM studies, showing the typical microstructuring of a twin polymer. Furthermore, nitrogen-containing porous carbon materials with a surface area between 200 and 800 m2 g−1 and a nitrogen content of up to 9.1% were obtained. The chemical nature of the incorporated nitrogen was investigated by XPS spectroscopy, revealing that mostly pyrrolic nitrogen is observed, but also pyridinic species are present.

Graphical abstract

The straightforward preparation of nitrogen-rich porous carbon materials by the twin polymerization of Si(OCH2-2- c C4H3NR)4 (R = Me, H) and 2,2′-spiro-bi[4H-1,3,2-benzodioxasiline] is reported.


Twin monomer Twin polymerization Copolymerization Silicon orthoester Hybrid material Porous carbon Nitrogen doping 



We like to thank T. Jagemann and Prof. Dr. M. Hietschold for SEM imaging of different samples and B. Kempe and Dr. R. Buschbeck for ESI-TOF mass spectrometry measurements.

Funding information

This study was funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (grant number FOR 1497 Organic-Inorganic Nanocomposites by Twin Polymerization) and the Cluster of Excellence MERGE (grant number DFG EXC 1075, MERGE Technologies for Multifunctional Lightweight Structures).

Compliance with ethical standards

Additional analytical data, further solid-state NMR spectra, TG and DSC traces, N2 adsorptions/desorption isotherms, TEM images, XPS data/spectra, and DFT data are available online free of charge atv the publishers homepage.

This article is based on the dissertation of Dr. Christian Schliebe (

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

396_2017_4254_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.6 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 1683 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christian Schliebe
    • 1
  • Julian Noll
    • 1
  • Sebastian Scharf
    • 1
  • Thomas Gemming
    • 2
  • Andreas Seifert
    • 3
  • Stefan Spange
    • 3
  • Daniel Lehmann
    • 4
  • Dietrich R. T. Zahn
    • 4
  • Benjamin Fiedler
    • 5
  • Joachim Friedrich
    • 5
  • Thomas Blaudeck
    • 6
  • Heinrich Lang
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Faculty of Natural Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Inorganic ChemistryTechnische Universität ChemnitzChemnitzGermany
  2. 2.IFW DresdenDresdenGermany
  3. 3.Faculty of Natural Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Polymer ChemistryTechnische Universität ChemnitzChemnitzGermany
  4. 4.Faculty of Natural Sciences, Institute of Physics, Semiconductor PhysicsTechnische Universität ChemnitzChemnitzGermany
  5. 5.Faculty of Natural Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Theoretical ChemistryTechnische Universität ChemnitzChemnitzGermany
  6. 6.Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Center for Microtechnologies (ZfM)Technische Universität ChemnitzChemnitzGermany

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