Colloid and Polymer Science

, Volume 293, Issue 1, pp 49–63 | Cite as

Controlled synthesis and characterization of iron oxide micro-particles for Fe-air battery electrode material

  • Nguyen Viet Long
  • Yong Yang
  • Cao Minh Thi
  • Bui Thi Hang
  • Yanqin Cao
  • Masayuki Nogami
Original Contribution


In this research, novel homogeneous iron (Fe) oxide particles with the pure α-Fe2O3 structure are successfully synthesized with controlling and shaping via a modified polyol method with NaBH4 as an efficient reducing agent according to drying and heat treatment processes. In the critical synthetic and experimental conditions, large α-Fe2O3 particles exhibited homogeneously large sizes in the certain ranges of 1-5 μm and 1-10 μm, which are regarded as a discovery of controlled and shaped synthesis. The electrochemical measurements indicated that oxide powders containing as-prepared pure α-Fe2O3 microparticles were successfully used in the electrodes. Accordingly, the cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic cycling measurements indicated their potential applications for next-generation Fe-air battery technology in comparison with commercial oxide products of Fe2O3 particles. Finally, we suggest that the sharp polyhedral shape and morphology of the engineered micro-particles, such as metal, alloy, and oxide micro-particles, are of importance because they have very high stability and durability with respect to their applied properties.


Colloidal oxide Surfaces Crystal structure Fe2O3 oxides Battery 



This work is supported by NAFOSTED Grant No. 103.02-2014.45, 2014, Vietnam. This is also supported by Vietnam National Foundation for Science and Technology Development (NAFOSTED) under Grant No. 103.02-2014.20, 2014. We greatly thank and appreciate the financial supports and projects sponsored by Chinese Academy of Sciences through Visiting Fellowship for Researchers from Developing Countries (Grant No. 2013FFGB0007) and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2014M551462) from Shanghai Institute of Ceramics (SIC), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Dingxi Road 1295, Shanghai 200050, China, and other Universities for our research on Novel Magnetic Nanoparticles for Catalysis, Biology and Medicine (Nanomedicine). The work was also supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51471182).


  1. 1.
    Aricò AS, Bruce P, Scrosati B, Tarascon J, Schalkwijk W (2005) Nanostructured materials for advanced energy conversion and storage devices. Nat Mater 4:366–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Poizot P, Laruelle S, Grugeon S, Dupont L, Tarascon JM (2000) Nano-sized transition-metal oxides as negative-electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Nature 407:496–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Burda C, Chen X, Narayanan R, El-Sayed MA (2005) Chemistry and properties of nanocrystals of different shapes. Chem Rev 105:1025–1102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Guo L, Huang Q, Li X, Yang S (2001) Iron nanoparticles: synthesis and applications in surface enhanced Raman scattering and electrocatalysis. Phys Chem Chem Phys 3:1661–1665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Murray CB, Sun S, Doyle H, Betley T (2001) Monodispersed transition-metal (Co, Ni, Fe) nanoparticles and their assembly into nanoparticle superlattices. Mater Res Soc Bull 26:985–991CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Laurent S, Forge D, Port M, Roch A, Robic C, Elst LV, Muller RNB (2008) Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, stabilization, vectorization, physicochemical characterizations, and biological applications. Chem Rev 108:2064–2110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Medford JA, Hubbard JW, Orange F, Guinel MFJ, Calcagno BO, Rinaldi C (2014) Magnetothermal repair of a PMMA/iron oxide magnetic nanocomposite. Colloid Polym Sci 292:1429–1437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Qiao R, Yang C, Gao M (2009) Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: from preparations to in vivo MRI applications. J Mater Chem 19:6274–6293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zhou X, Shi Y, Ren L, Bao S, Han Y, Wu S, Zhang H, Zhong L, Zhang Q (2012) Controllable synthesis, magnetic and biocompatible properties of Fe3O4 and α-Fe2O3 nanocrystals. J Solid State Chem 196:138–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jun Y, Choi J, Cheon J (2007) Heterostructured magnetic nanoparticles: their versatility and high performance capabilities. Chem Commun (12):1203–1214Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Miguel-Sancho N, Bomati-Miguel O, Roca AG, Martinez G, Arruebo M, Santamaria J (2012) Synthesis of magnetic nanocrystals by thermal decomposition in glycol media: effect of process variables and mechanistic study. Ind Eng Chem Res 51:8348–8357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Farrell D, Majetich S, Wilcoxon J (2003) Preparation and characterization of monodisperse Fe nanoparticles. J Phys Chem B 107:11022–11030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Blanco-Andujar C, Ortega D, Pankhurst QA, Thanh NTK (2012) Elucidating the morphological and structural evolution of iron oxide nanoparticles formed by sodium carbonate in aqueous medium. J Mater Chem 22:12498–12506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Li Y, Zhao Z, Wang C, Yang C, Wang Z (2013) Facile preparation of α-Fe2O3/carbon and polyhydroxy iron cation/polyaniline hollow particles. Colloid Polym Sci 291:1287–1291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lu A, Salabas EL, Schüth F (2007) Magnetic nanoparticles: synthesis, protection, functionalization, and application. Angew Chem Int Ed 46:1222–1244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yin J, Yu Z, Gao F, Wang J, Pang H, Lu Q (2010) Low-symmetry iron oxide nanocrystals bound by high-index facets. Angew Chem Int Ed 49:6328–6332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gong J, Yao K, Liu J, Jiang Z, Chen X, Wen X, Mijowska E, Tiana N, Tang T (2013) Striking influence of Fe2O3 on the “catalytic carbonization” of chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) into carbon microspheres with high performance in the photo-degradation of Congo red. J Mater Chem A 1:5247–5255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Guo H, Barnard AS (2013) Naturally occurring iron oxide nanoparticles: morphology, surface chemistry and environmental stability. J Mater Chem A 1:27–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bai S, Chen S, Shen X, Zhua G, Wang G (2012) Nanocomposites of hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanospindles with crumpled reduced graphene oxide nanosheets as high-performance anode material for lithium ion batteries. RSC Adv 2:10977–10984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yu W, Hou P, Li F, Liu CJ (2012) Improved electrochemical performance of Fe2O3 nanoparticles confined in carbon nanotubes. Mater Chem 22:13756–13763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Song G, Bo J, Guo R (2004) The characterization and property of polystyrene compounding of α-Fe2O3 in the nano-scale. Colloid Polym Sci 282:656–660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ming J, Wu Y, Wang LY, Yua Y, Zhao F (2011) CO2-assisted template synthesis of porous hollow bi-phase γ-/α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles with high sensor property. J Mater Chem 21:17776–17782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hang BT, Hayashi H, Yoon SH, Okada S, Yamaki J (2008) Fe2O3-filled carbon nanotubes as a negative electrode for an Fe-air battery. J Power Sources 178:393–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Huber DL (2005) Synthesis, properties, and applications of iron nanoparticles. Small 1:482–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Colombo M, Carregal-Romero S, Casula MF, Gutiérrez L, Morales MP, Böhm IB, Heverhagen JT, Prosperi D, Parak WJ (2012) Biological applications of magnetic nanoparticles. Chem Soc Rev 41:4306–4334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Teja AS, Koh PP (2009) Synthesis, properties, and applications of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Cryst Growth Charact Mater 55:22–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hosokawa M, Nogi K, Naito M, Yokoyama T (2007) Nanoparticle technology handbook, 1st edn. Elsevier BV, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zhu H, Zhang S, Huang Y, Wu L, Sun S (2013) Monodisperse MxFe3–xO4 (M = Fe, Cu, Co, Mn) nanoparticles and their electrocatalysis for oxygen reduction reaction. Nano Lett 13:2947–2951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Simeonidis K, Mourdikoudis S, Moulla M, Tsiaoussis I, Martinez-Boubeta C, Angelakeris M, Dendrinou-Samara C, Kalogirou O (2007) Controlled synthesis and phase characterization of Fe-based nanoparticles obtained by thermal decomposition. J Magn Magn Mater 316:e1–e4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Peng S, Wang C, Xie J, Sun S (2006) Synthesis and stabilization of monodisperse Fe nanoparticles. J Am Chem Soc 128:10676–10677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hyeon T (2003) Chemical synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles. Chem Comm 927–934Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Song Y, Jin P, Zhang T (2010) Microfluidic synthesis of Fe nanoparticles. Mater Lett 64:1789–1792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Tong G, Wu W, Guan J, Qian H, Yuan J, Li W (2011) Synthesis and characterization of nanosized urchin-like α-Fe2O3 and Fe3O4: microwave electromagnetic and absorbing properties. J Alloys Compd 509:4320–4326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hou Y, Xu Z, Sun S (2007) Controlled synthesis and chemical conversions of FeO nanoparticles. Angew Chem Int Ed 46:6329–6332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wu W, He Q, Jiang C (2008) Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: synthesis and surface functionalization strategies. Nanoscale Res Lett 3:397–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lacroix L, Huls NF, Ho D, Sun X, Cheng K, Sun S (2011) Stable single-crystalline body centered cubic Fe nanoparticles. Nano Lett 11:1641–1645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rong C, Nandwana V, Poudyal N, Li Y, Liu JP, Ding Y, Wang ZL (2007) Formation of Fe3Pt phase in FePt-based nanocomposite magnets. J Phys D Appl Phys 40:712–716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mou X, Wei X, Li Y, Shen W (2012) Tuning crystal-phase and shape of Fe2O3 nanoparticles for catalytic applications. Cryst Eng Comm 14:5107–5120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Mou X, Li Y, Zhang B, Yao L, Wei X, Su DS, Shen W (2012) Crystal-phase- and morphology-controlled synthesis of Fe2O3 nanomaterials. Eur J Inorg Chem 2012:2684–2690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Mou X, Zhang B, Li Y, Yao L, Wei X, Su DS, Shen W (2012) Rod-shaped Fe2O3 as an efficient catalyst for the selective reduction of nitrogen oxide by ammonia. Angew Chem Int Ed 51:2989–2993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Guo J, Wang R, Tjiu WW, Pan J, Liu T (2012) Synthesis of Fe nanoparticles@graphene composites for environmental applications. J Hazard Mater 225–226:63–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Zeng H, Sun S (2008) Syntheses, properties, and potential applications of multicomponent magnetic nanoparticles. Adv Funct Mater 18:391–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Shukla N, Nigra MM (2007) Synthesis and self-assembly of magnetic nanoparticles. Surf Sci 601:2615–2617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Franzel L, Bertino MF, Huba ZJ, Carpenter EE (2012) Synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles by pulsed laser ablation. Appl Surf Sci 261:332–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Bharathi S, Nataraj D, Mangalaraj D, Masuda Y, Senthil K, Yong K (2010) Highly mesoporous α-Fe2O3 nanostructures: preparation, characterization and improved photocatalytic performance towards Rhodamine B (RhB). J Phys D Appl Phys 43:015501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Tang B, Wang G, Zhuo L, Ge J, Cui L (2006) Facile route to α-FeOOH and α-Fe2O3 nanorods and magnetic property of α-Fe2O3 nanorods. Inorg Chem 45:5196–5200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Joseyphus R, Shinoda K, Kodama D, Jeyadevan B (2010) Size controlled Fe nanoparticles through polyol process and their magnetic properties. Mater Chem Phys 123:487–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Long NV, Ohtaki M, Uchida M, Jalem R, Hirata H, Chien ND, Nogami M (2011) Synthesis and characterization of polyhedral Pt nanoparticles: their catalytic property, surface attachments, self-aggregation and assembly. J Colloid Interface Sci 359:339–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Chakkaravarthy C, Perasamy P, Jegannathan S, Vasu KI (1991) The nickel/iron battery. J Power Sources 35:21–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Vijayamohanan K, Balasubramanian TS, Shukla AK (1991) Rechargeable alkaline iron electrodes. J Power Sources 34:269–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Jayalakshmi M, Begumi BN, Chidambaram VR, Sabapathi R, Muralidharan VS (1992) Role of activation on the performance of the iron negative electrode in nickel/iron cells. J Power Sources 39:113–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Jayalakshimi N, Muralidharan VS, Shukla AK (1995) A nickel-iron battery with roll-compacted iron electrodes. J Power Sources 56:209–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hampson NA, Latham RJ, Marshall A, Giles RD (1974) Some aspects of the electrochemical behaviour of the iron electrode in alkaline solutions. Electrochim Acta 19:397–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Ojefors L (1976) Self-discharge of the alkaline iron electrode. Electrochim Acta 21:263–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Vassie PR, Tseung ACC (1976) High performance, rechargeable sintered iron electrodes-I: the effect of preparative methods and additives on the structure and performance of sintered iron electrodes. Electrochim Acta 21:299–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Shoesmith DW, Taylor P, Bailey MG, Ikeda B (1978) Electrochemical behaviour of iron in alkaline sulphide solutions. Electrochim Acta 23:903–916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Carta R, Dernini S, Polcaro AM, Ricci PF, Tola G (1988) The influence of sulphide environment on hydrogen evolution at a stainless steel cathode in alkaline solution. J Electroanal Chem 257:257–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Vijayamohanan K, Shukla AK, Sathyanarayana S (1990) Role of sulphide additives on the performance of alkaline iron electrodes. J Electroanal Chem 289:55–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Vijayamohanan K, Shukla AK, Sathyanarayana S (1990) Kinetics of electrode reactions occurring on porous iron electrodes in alkaline media. J Electroanal Chem 295:59–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kalaignan GP, Muralidharan VS, Vasu KI (1987) Triangular potential sweep voltammetric study of porous iron electrodes in alkali solutions. J Appl Electrochem 17:1083–1092CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Micka K, Zabransky Z (1987) Study of iron oxide electrodes in an alkaline electrolyte. J Power Sources 19:315–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Cerny J, Micka K (1989) Voltammetric study of an iron electrode in alkaline electrolytes. J Power Sources 25:111–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Vijayamohanan K, Shukla AK (1990) Formation mechanism of porous alkaline iron electrodes. J Power Sources 32:329–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Jayalakshimi N, Muralidharan S (1990) Developmental studies on porous iron electrodes for the nickel-iron cell. J Power Sources 32:341–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Balasubramanian TS, Shukla AK (1993) Effect of metal-sulfide additives on charge/discharge reactions of the alkaline iron electrode. J Power Sources 41:99–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Cerny J, Jindra J, Micka K (1993) Comparative study of porous iron electrodes. J Power Sources 45:267–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Periasamy P, Babu BR, Iyer SV (1996) Cyclic voltammetric studies of porous iron electrodes in alkaline solutions used for alkaline batteries. J Power Sources 58:35–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Periasamy P, Babu BR, Iyer SV (1996) Performance characterization of sintered iron electrodes in nickel/iron alkaline batteries. J Power Sources 62:9–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Periasamy P, Babu BR, Iyer SV (1996) Electrochemical behaviour of Teflon-bonded iron oxide electrodes in alkaline solutions. J Power Sources 63:79–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Caldas CA, Lopes MC, Carlos (1998) The role of FeS and (NH4)2CO3 additives on the pressed type Fe electrode. J Power Sources 74:108–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Souza CAC, Carlos IA, Lopes MC, Finazzi GA, de Almeida MRH (2004) Self-discharge of Fe-Ni alkaline batteries. J Power Sources 132:288–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Schrebler-Guzman RS, Viche JR, Arvia A (1979) The potentiodynamic behaviour of iron in alkaline solutions. J Electrochim Acta 24:395–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Muralidharan VS, Veerashanmugamani M (1985) Electrochemical behaviour of pure iron in concentrated sodium hydroxide solutions at different temperatures: a triangular potential sweep voltammetric study. J Appl Electrochem 15:675–683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Khaselev O, Sykes JM (1997) In-situ electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy studies on the oxidation of iron in alkaline solution. Electrochim Acta 42:2333–2337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Armstrong RD, Baurhoo I (1972) The dissolution of iron in concentrated alkali. J Electroanal Chem 40:325–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Macdonald DD, Owen D (1973) The electrochemistry of Iron in lM lithium hydroxide solution at 22° and 200 °C. J Electrochem Soc 120:317–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Andersson B, Ojefors L (1976) Slow potentiodynamic studies of porous alkaline iron electrodes. J Electrochem Soc 123:824–828CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Ojefors L (1976) SEM studies of discharge products from alkaline iron electrodes. J Electrochem Soc 123:1691–1696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Ojefors L (1976) Temperature dependence of iron and cadmium alkaline electrodes. J Electrochem Soc 123:1139–1144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Cornell RM, Schwertmann U (2003) The iron oxides: structure, properties, reactions, occurrences and uses, Wiley, Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Hang BT, Thang DH, Nga NT, Minh PTL, Kobayashi E (2013) Nanoparticle Fe2O3-loaded carbon nanofibers as iron-air battery anodes. J Electrochem Soc 160:A1442–A1445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Majewski P (2006) In: Kumar CSSR (ed) Nanomaterials for water treatment. Wiley, 211–233Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Guo H, Xu H, Barnard AS (2013) Can hematite nanoparticles be an environmental indicator? Energy Environ Sci 6:561–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Long NV, Thi CM, Nogami M, Ohtaki M (2012) Novel issues of morphology, size, and structure of Pt nanoparticles in chemical engineering: surface attachment, aggregation or agglomeration, assembly, and structural changes. New J Chem 36:1320–1334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Jang B, Park M, Chae OB, Park S, Kim Y, Oh S, Piao M, Hyeon T (2012) Direct synthesis of self-assembled ferrite/carbon hybrid nanosheets for high performance lithium-ion battery anodes. J Am Chem Soc 134:15010–15015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Rao PM, Zheng X (2009) Rapid catalyst-free flame synthesis of dense, aligned alpha-Fe2O3 nanoflake and CuO nanoneedle arrays. Nano Lett 9:3001–3006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Long NV, Yang Y, Thi CM, Cao Y, Nogami M (2014) Ultra-high stability and durability of α-Fe2O3 oxide micro- and nano-structures with discovery of new 3D structural formation of grain and boundary. Colloids Surf A 456:184–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Long NV, Yang Y, Thi CM, Cao Y, Nann T, Nogami M (2014) Gas-sensing properties of p-type α-Fe2O3 polyhedral particles synthesized via a modified polyol method. RSC Adv 4:8250–8255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Long NV, Yang Y, Thi CM, Cao Y, Nann T, Nogami M (2014) Controlled synthesis and characterization of iron oxide nanostructures with potential applications for gas sensors and the environment. RSC Adv 4:6383–6390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Long NV, Yang Y, Thi CM, Nogami M, Ohtaki M (2013) Platinum and palladium nanostructured catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cells and direct methanol fuel cells. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 13:4799–4824Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Long NV, Yang Y, Thi CM, Cao Y, Minh NV, Nogami M (2013) The development of mixture, alloy, and core-shell nano-catalysts with the support nano-materials for energy conversion in low temperature fuel cells. Nano Energy 2(5):636–676Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Long NV, Thi CM, Yong Y, Cao Y, Wu H, Nogami M (2014) Synthesis and characterization of iron metal and oxide based nanoparticles: discoveries and research highlights of potential applications in biology and medicine. Recent Patents Nanotechnol 8:52–61Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nguyen Viet Long
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Yong Yang
    • 1
  • Cao Minh Thi
    • 5
  • Bui Thi Hang
    • 6
  • Yanqin Cao
    • 1
  • Masayuki Nogami
    • 7
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of CeramicsChinese Academy of ScienceShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Posts and Telecommunications Institute of TechnologyHanoiVietnam
  3. 3.Laboratory for NanotechnologyHo Chi Minh Vietnam National UniversityHo Chi MinhVietnam
  4. 4.Department of Molecular and Material Sciences, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering SciencesKyushu UniversityKasugaJapan
  5. 5.Ho Chi Minh City University of TechnologyHo Chi Minh CityVietnam
  6. 6.International Training Institute for Materials ScienceHanoi University of Science and TechnologyHanoiVietnam
  7. 7.Toyota Physical and Chemical Research InstituteToyota Motor CorporationNagakuteJapan

Personalised recommendations