Colloid and Polymer Science

, Volume 291, Issue 1, pp 77–86 | Cite as

Synthesis and characterisation of sterically stabilised polypyrrole particles using a chemically reactive poly(vinyl amine)-based stabiliser

Original Contribution

Abstract

Poly(vinyl amine) (PVAm) was derivatised using 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde via Michael addition to prepare a statistical copolymer stabiliser for the synthesis of primary amine-functionalised polypyrrole (PPy) particles. A minimum stabiliser concentration of around 20 % (w/v) relative to pyrrole was required for well-defined PPy particles of approximately 100–200 nm, as judged by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). FTIR spectroscopy confirmed that stabiliser grafting had occurred, while x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies indicated a stabiliser surface coverage on the PPy particles of around 53 %. PPy particles prepared at stabiliser concentrations below 20 % (w/v) were not colloidally stable above pH 6. However, higher stabiliser concentrations (e.g., 50 % (w/v) based on pyrrole) led to a significant improvement, with colloidal stability being retained above pH 7. Long-term colloidal stability studies of PPy particles stored at pH 7.5 confirmed that the amine-based stabiliser produced more stable aqueous dispersions than the imine-based stabiliser, since the latter bond is hydrolytically unstable.

Keywords

Polypyrrole Primary amine Aqueous dispersion polymerisation Immunodiagnostics Chemical grafting Steric stabilisation Conducting polymer 

Notes

Acknowledgements

METRC is thanked for funding this study via a proof-of-concept grant. Vivacta Ltd. (Sittingbourne, UK) is also thanked for partial support of this work. BASF (Ludwigshafen, Germany) is acknowledged for the kind gift of the poly(vinyl amine) precursor. Amy Walsh is thanked for sharing her acid titration data for poly(vinyl amine).

References

  1. 1.
    McNeil R, Siudak R, Wardlaw JH, Weiss DE (1963) Aust J Chem 16:1056–1061CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Armes SP (1987) Synth Met 20:367–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kanazawa KK, Diaz AF, Geiss RH, Gill WD, Kwak JF, Logan JA, Rabolt JF, Street GB (1979) J Chem Soc Chem Commun 14:635-636Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bradner FP, Shapiro JS, Bowley HJ, Gerrard DL, Maddams WF (1989) Polymer 30:914–917CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bjorklund B, Liedberg B (1986) J Chem Soc Chem Commun 16:1293-1295Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Armes SP, Vincent B (1987) J Chem Soc Chem Commun 4:288-290Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Armes SP, Miller JF, Vincent B (1987) J Colloid Interface Sci 118:410–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hong J-Y, Yoon H, Jang J (2009) Small 6:679–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cawdery N, Obey TM, Vincent B (1988) J Chem Soc Chem Commun 17:1189-1190Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Burchell MJ, Willis M, Armes SP, Khan MA, Percy MJ, Perruchot C (2002) Planetary Space Sci 50:1025–1035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pope MR, Armes SP, Tarcha PJ (1996) Bioconjugate Chem 7:436–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Au KM, Lu ZH, Matcher SJ, Armes SP (2011) Adv Mater 23:5792–5795CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Simmons MR, Chaloner PA, Armes SP (1995) Langmuir 11:4222–4224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Simmons MR, Chaloner PA, Armes SP, Greaves SJ, Watts JF (1998) Langmuir 14:611–618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Simmons MR, Chaloner PA, Armes SP, Kang ET, Tan KL, Loh FC (1996) Polymer 37:2743–2749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bai YL, Koh CG, Boreman M, Juang YJ, Tang IC, Lee LJ, Yang ST (2006) Langmuir 22:9458–9467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chen W, Leung V, Kroener H, Pelton R (2009) Langmuir 25:6863–6868CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chen W, Pelton R, Leung V (2009) Macromolecules 42:1300–1305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Li P, Zhu JM, Sunintaboon P, Harris FW (2002) Langmuir 18:8641–8646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Li WY, Li P (2007) Macromol Rapid Commun 28:2267–2271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    McCarthy GP, Armes SP, Greaves SJ, Watts JF (1997) Langmuir 13:3686–3692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Maeda S, Corradi R, Armes SP (1995) Macromolecules 28:2905–2911CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Azioune A, Ben Slimane A, Hamou LA, Pleuvy A, Chehimi MM, Perruchot C, Armes SP (2004) Langmuir 20:3350–3356CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dainton Building, Department of ChemistryThe University of SheffieldSheffieldUK

Personalised recommendations