TXNIP mediates NLRP3 inflammasome activation in cardiac microvascular endothelial cells as a novel mechanism in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury
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NLRP3 inflammasome is necessary for initiating acute sterile inflammation. Recent studies have demonstrated that NLRP3 inflammasome is up-regulated and mediates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. However, the signaling pathways that lead to the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome by MI/R injury have not been fully elucidated. C57BL/6J mice were subjected to 30 min ischemia and 3 or 24 h reperfusion. The ischemic heart exhibited enhanced inflammasome activation as evidenced by increased NLRP3 expression and caspase-1 activity and increased IL-1β and IL-18 production. Intramyocardial NLRP3 siRNA injection or an intraperitoneal injection of BAY 11-7028, an inflammasome inhibitor, attenuated macrophage and neutrophil infiltration and decreased MI/R injury, as measured by cardiomyocyte apoptosis and infarct size. The ischemic heart also exhibited enhanced interaction between Txnip and NLRP3, which has been shown to be a mechanism for activating NLRP3. Intramyocardial Txnip siRNA injection also decreased infarct size and NLRP3 activation. In vitro experiments revealed that NLRP3 was expressed in cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs), but was hardly expressed in cardiomyocytes. Simulated ischemia/reperfusion (SI/R) stimulated NLRP3 inflammasome activation in CMECs, but not in cardiomyocytes. Moreover, CMECs subjected to SI/R injury increased interactions between Txnip and NLRP3. Txnip siRNA diminished NLRP3 inflammasome activation and SI/R-induced injury, as measured by LDH release and caspase-3 activity in CMECs. ROS scavenger dissociated TXNIP from NLRP3 and inhibited the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in the CMECs. For the first time, we demonstrated that TXNIP-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation in CMECs was a novel mechanism of MI/R injury. Interventions that block Txnip/NLRP3 signaling to inhibit the activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes may be novel therapies for mitigating MI/R injury.
KeywordsIschemia/reperfusion TXNIP NLRP3 inflammasome Cardiac microvascular endothelial cells
This work was supported by program for Chinese National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars (Grant No. 81225001), National Key Basic Research Program of China (973 Program, 2013CB531204), New Century Excellent Talents in University (Grant No. NCET-11-0870), Chinese National Science Funds (Grants Nos. 81070676 and 81170186), Innovation Team Development Grant by China Department of Education (2010CXTD01) and Major Science and Technology Projects of China “Significant New Drug Development” (Grant No. 2012ZX09J12108-06B).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that no conflict of interest exists.
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