TGF-β1 enhances cardiomyogenic differentiation of skeletal muscle-derived adult primitive cells
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- Abdel-Latif, A., Zuba-Surma, E.K., Case, J. et al. Basic Res Cardiol (2008) 103: 514. doi:10.1007/s00395-008-0729-9
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The optimal medium for cardiac differentiation of adult primitive cells remains to be established. We quantitatively compared the efficacy of IGF-1, dynorphin B, insulin, oxytocin, bFGF, and TGF-β1 in inducing cardiomyogenic differentiation. Adult mouse skeletal muscle-derived Sca1+/CD45-/c-kit-/Thy-1+ (SM+) and Sca1-/CD45-/c-kit-/Thy-1+ (SM-) cells were cultured in basic medium (BM; DMEM, FBS, IGF-1, dynorphin B) alone and BM supplemented with insulin, oxytocin, bFGF, or TGF-β1. Cardiac differentiation was evaluated by the expression of cardiac-specific markers at the mRNA (qRT-PCR) and protein (immunocytochemistry) levels. BM+TGF-β1 upregulated mRNA expression of Nkx2.5 and GATA-4 after 4 days and Myl2 after 9 days. After 30 days, BM+TGF-β1 induced the greatest extent of cardiac differentiation (by morphology and expression of cardiac markers) in SM- cells. We conclude that TGF-β1 enhances cardiomyogenic differentiation in skeletal muscle-derived adult primitive cells. This strategy may be utilized to induce cardiac differentiation as well as to examine the cardiomyogenic potential of adult tissue-derived stem/progenitor cells.