Modified apple polysaccharide regulates microbial dysbiosis to suppress high-fat diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6J mice

  • Yuhua Li
  • Wenqi Xu
  • Yang Sun
  • Yan Wang
  • Yuan Tang
  • Yunhua Li
  • Xiaowei Gao
  • Can Song
  • Li LiuEmail author
  • Qibing MeiEmail author
Original Contribution



Obesity, substantially increasing the risk of diseases such as metabolic diseases, becomes a major health challenge. In this study, we, therefore, investigated the effect of modified apple polysaccharide (MAP) on obesity.


Twelve male C57BL/6J mice were given a 45% high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks to replicate an obesity model and six mice were given normal diet as control. Then, 1 g/kg MAP was administrated to six mice by gavage for 15 days. Illumina Miseq PE300 sequencing platform was used to analyze the microbial diversity of fecal samples. Flow cytometry was employed to investigate the effects of MAP on immune cells in adipose tissue. Bacterial culture and qPCR were used to assess the effects of MAP on the growth of whole fecal bacteria and representative microbiota in vitro.


MAP could alleviate HFD-induced obesity and decrease body weight of mice effectively. The results of α diversity showed that Shannon index in HFD group was significantly lower than that in control group; Shannon index in MAP group was higher than that in HFD group. The results of β diversity showed that the microbiota of MAP group was more similar to that of control group. HFD increased the number of T cells and macrophages in adipocytes; while MAP decreased the number of T cells and macrophages. MAP could promote the growth of fecal bacteria, and demonstrated a facilitated effect on the proliferation of Bacteroidetes, Bacteroides, Lactobacillus, and an inhibitory effect on Fusobacterium.


MAP could reduce HFD-induced obesity of mice effectively. The possible mechanisms are that MAP restored HFD-induced intestinal microbiota disorder, downregulated the number of T cells and macrophages in adipose tissue.


High-fat diet Obesity Modified apple polysaccharide Intestinal microbiota Inflammation 











High-density lipoprotein cholesterol


High-fat diet


Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol




Colitis-associated colorectal cancer


Total cholesterol





This investigation was supported by the Grant (no. 81302787), from National Natural Science Foundation of China and the Grant (no. 2018M633405) from Postdoctoral Science Foundation of China, and the Grant (no. 2019JQ-562) from Shaanxi Natural Science basic Research Program Project.

Author contributions

The experiments were conceived and designed by YL, WX, and QM, and performed by YL, WX, YS, YW, YT, YL, XG, and CS; the data were analyzed by WX, YS, and LL. The initial manuscript draft was written by YL, and critically revised by LL and QM. And all authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

394_2019_2051_MOESM1_ESM.doc (238 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 237 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Microbial and Biochemical Pharmacy, School of PharmacySouthwest Medial UniversityLuzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of New Drug and Pharmaceutical Process, Shanghai Institute of Pharmaceutical IndustryChina State Institute of Pharmaceutical IndustryShanghaiChina
  3. 3.Shanghai Professional and Technical Service Center for Biological Material Drug-Ability EvaluationShanghaiChina
  4. 4.Department of PharmacyThe First Naval Force Hospital of Southern Theatre CommandZhanjiangPeople’s Republic of China
  5. 5.Key Laboratory of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology of Chinese Materia Medica of the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, School of PharmacyThe Fourth Military Medical UniversityXi’anPeople’s Republic of China

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