Altered gut microbiota ameliorates bone pathology in the mandible of obese–insulin-resistant rats
- 56 Downloads
The chronic consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) induces obese–insulin resistance and impairs jawbone health via gut dysbiosis-stimulated inflammatory process. Our previous studies demonstrated that the probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei HII01, prebiotic xylooligosaccharide (XOS), and synbiotics improved several vital organ functions by reducing gut dysbiosis in HFD-induced obese rats. However, the impacts on the cellular level of jawbone microarchitecture have not been examined. Here, we hypothesized that the supplementation of L. paracasei HII01, XOS, and synbiotics ameliorated the bone microarchitectural pathology in HFD-fed rats by reducing systemic inflammation and other metabolic parameters.
The dietary regimes (normal or high-fat diet) were provided to 48 male Wistar rats throughout 24-week experiment. After week 12, rats were given either a vehicle, pro-, pre-, or synbiotic for an additional 12 weeks before being killed. Then, blood analyses and bone histomorphometry of the jawbones were performed.
The HFD-fed rats developed obese–insulin resistance with significantly elevated systemic inflammation. Bone histomorphometry of these rats showed a decrease in trabecular thickness with increased osteoclasts and active erosion surfaces. Mineral apposition and bone-formation rates were also remarkably diminished. The treatment with pro-, pre-, and synbiotics equally improved metabolic disturbance, reduced systemic inflammation, increased trabecular thickness, decreased osteoclasts and active erosion surfaces and restored mineral apposition and bone-formation rates.
The probiotic L. paracasei HII01, prebiotic XOS, and the synbiotics had similarly beneficial effects to improve jawbone microarchitecture in HFD-fed rats by possibly ameliorating osteoclast-related bone resorption and potentiating bone-formation activities.
KeywordsJawbone Lactobacillus paracasei HII01 Obesity Synbiotics Xylooligosaccharide
This work was supported by Thailand Research Fund (TRF) Grants: TRF-Senior Research Scholar RTA6080003 (to SCC), RTA6080007 (to N. Charoenphandhu), IRN60W0001 (to N. Charoenphandhu) and MRG6180187 (to PT); Mahidol University (to N. Charoenphandhu); a CMU 50th Anniversary Grant by Chiang Mai University (PHD/014/2557 SE&SCC); a NSTDA Research Chair Grant from the National Science and Technology Development Agency Thailand (N. Chattipakorn) and a Chiang Mai University Center of Excellence Award (N. Chattipakorn).
The authors’ responsibilities were as follows—SE, PT, and NC and SCC: designed the research; SE, WT, and TC: conducted the research; PS, NC, and PT: provided essential materials; SE, NC, and SCC: analyzed the data; SE, NC, NC, and SCC: wrote the manuscript; SCC: had primary responsibility for the final content; and all authors: read and approved the final manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.
- 4.Eaimworawuthikul S, Tunapong W, Chunchai T, Yasom S, Wanchai K, Suntornsaratoon P, Charoenphandhu N, Thiennimitr P, Chattipakorn N, Chattipakorn SC (2018) Effects of probiotics, prebiotics or synbiotics on jawbone in obese-insulin resistant rats. Eur J Nutr. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-018-1829-4 Google Scholar
- 6.Cani PD, Amar J, Iglesias MA, Poggi M, Knauf C, Bastelica D, Neyrinck AM, Fava F, Tuohy KM, Chabo C, Waget A, Delmee E, Cousin B, Sulpice T, Chamontin B, Ferrieres J, Tanti JF, Gibson GR, Casteilla L, Delzenne NM, Alessi MC, Burcelin R (2007) Metabolic endotoxemia initiates obesity and insulin resistance. Diabetes 56(7):1761–1772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 20.Tunapong W, Apaijai N, Yasom S, Tanajak P, Wanchai K, Chunchai T, Kerdphoo S, Eaimworawuthikul S, Thiennimitr P, Pongchaidecha A, Lungkaphin A, Pratchayasakul W, Chattipakorn SC, Chattipakorn N (2017) Chronic treatment with prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics attenuated cardiac dysfunction by improving cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction in male obese insulin-resistant rats. Eur J Nutr. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-017-1482-3 Google Scholar
- 21.Chunchai T, Thunapong W, Yasom S, Wanchai K, Eaimworawuthikul S, Metzler G, Lungkaphin A, Pongchaidecha A, Sirilun S, Chaiyasut C, Pratchayasakul W, Thiennimitr P, Chattipakorn N, Chattipakorn SC (2018) Decreased microglial activation through gut–brain axis by prebiotics, probiotics, or synbiotics effectively restored cognitive function in obese–insulin resistant rats. J Neuroinflamm 15(1):11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 22.Wanchai K, Yasom S, Tunapong W, Chunchai T, Eaimworawuthikul S, Thiennimitr P, Chaiyasut C, Pongchaidecha A, Chatsudthipong V, Chattipakorn S, Chattipakorn N, Lungkaphin A (2018) Probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei HII01 protects rats against obese–insulin resistance-induced kidney injury and impaired renal organic anion transporter 3 function. Clin Sci (Lond) 132(14):1545–1563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 27.Charoenphandhu N, Suntornsaratoon P, Sa-Nguanmoo P, Tanajak P, Teerapornpuntakit J, Aeimlapa R, Chattipakorn N, Chattipakorn S (2018) Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, vildagliptin, improves trabecular bone mineral density and microstructure in obese, insulin-resistant, pre-diabetic rats. Can J Diabetes 42:545–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 29.Dempster DW, Compston JE, Drezner MK, Glorieux FH, Kanis JA, Malluche H, Meunier PJ, Ott SM, Recker RR, Parfitt AM (2013) Standardized nomenclature, symbols, and units for bone histomorphometry: a 2012 update of the report of the ASBMR Histomorphometry Nomenclature Committee. J Bone Miner Res 28(1):2–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 33.de Silva V, Lobato RV, Andrade EF, Orlando DR, Borges BDB, Zangeronimo MG, de Sousa RV, Pereira LJ (2017) Effects of beta-glucans ingestion on alveolar bone loss, intestinal morphology, systemic inflammatory profile, and pancreatic beta-cell function in rats with periodontitis and diabetes. Nutrients 9(9):1016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 36.Ricoldi MST, Furlaneto FAC, Oliveira LFF, Teixeira GC, Pischiotini JP, Moreira ALG, Ervolino E, de Oliveira MN, Bogsan CSB, Salvador SL, Messora MR (2017) Effects of the probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis on the non-surgical treatment of periodontitis. A histomorphometric, microtomographic and immunohistochemical study in rats. PLoS One 12(6):e0179946CrossRefGoogle Scholar