Altered gut microbiota ameliorates bone pathology in the mandible of obese–insulin-resistant rats

  • Sathima Eaimworawuthikul
  • Wannipa Tunapong
  • Titikorn Chunchai
  • Panan Suntornsaratoon
  • Narattaphol Charoenphandhu
  • Parameth Thiennimitr
  • Nipon Chattipakorn
  • Siriporn C. ChattipakornEmail author
Original Contribution



The chronic consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) induces obese–insulin resistance and impairs jawbone health via gut dysbiosis-stimulated inflammatory process. Our previous studies demonstrated that the probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei HII01, prebiotic xylooligosaccharide (XOS), and synbiotics improved several vital organ functions by reducing gut dysbiosis in HFD-induced obese rats. However, the impacts on the cellular level of jawbone microarchitecture have not been examined. Here, we hypothesized that the supplementation of L. paracasei HII01, XOS, and synbiotics ameliorated the bone microarchitectural pathology in HFD-fed rats by reducing systemic inflammation and other metabolic parameters.


The dietary regimes (normal or high-fat diet) were provided to 48 male Wistar rats throughout 24-week experiment. After week 12, rats were given either a vehicle, pro-, pre-, or synbiotic for an additional 12 weeks before being killed. Then, blood analyses and bone histomorphometry of the jawbones were performed.


The HFD-fed rats developed obese–insulin resistance with significantly elevated systemic inflammation. Bone histomorphometry of these rats showed a decrease in trabecular thickness with increased osteoclasts and active erosion surfaces. Mineral apposition and bone-formation rates were also remarkably diminished. The treatment with pro-, pre-, and synbiotics equally improved metabolic disturbance, reduced systemic inflammation, increased trabecular thickness, decreased osteoclasts and active erosion surfaces and restored mineral apposition and bone-formation rates.


The probiotic L. paracasei HII01, prebiotic XOS, and the synbiotics had similarly beneficial effects to improve jawbone microarchitecture in HFD-fed rats by possibly ameliorating osteoclast-related bone resorption and potentiating bone-formation activities.


Jawbone Lactobacillus paracasei HII01 Obesity Synbiotics Xylooligosaccharide 



This work was supported by Thailand Research Fund (TRF) Grants: TRF-Senior Research Scholar RTA6080003 (to SCC), RTA6080007 (to N. Charoenphandhu), IRN60W0001 (to N. Charoenphandhu) and MRG6180187 (to PT); Mahidol University (to N. Charoenphandhu); a CMU 50th Anniversary Grant by Chiang Mai University (PHD/014/2557 SE&SCC); a NSTDA Research Chair Grant from the National Science and Technology Development Agency Thailand (N. Chattipakorn) and a Chiang Mai University Center of Excellence Award (N. Chattipakorn).

Author contributions

The authors’ responsibilities were as follows—SE, PT, and NC and SCC: designed the research; SE, WT, and TC: conducted the research; PS, NC, and PT: provided essential materials; SE, NC, and SCC: analyzed the data; SE, NC, NC, and SCC: wrote the manuscript; SCC: had primary responsibility for the final content; and all authors: read and approved the final manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sathima Eaimworawuthikul
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Wannipa Tunapong
    • 3
  • Titikorn Chunchai
    • 3
  • Panan Suntornsaratoon
    • 5
    • 6
  • Narattaphol Charoenphandhu
    • 5
    • 6
    • 7
    • 8
  • Parameth Thiennimitr
    • 4
  • Nipon Chattipakorn
    • 3
  • Siriporn C. Chattipakorn
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Orthodontics and Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of DentistryChiang Mai UniversityChiang MaiThailand
  2. 2.Department of Oral Biology and Diagnostic Sciences, Faculty of DentistryChiang Mai UniversityChiang MaiThailand
  3. 3.Neurophysiology Unit, Center of Excellence in Cardiac Electrophysiology Research and Training Center, Faculty of MedicineChiang Mai UniversityChiang MaiThailand
  4. 4.Department of Microbiology, Faculty of MedicineChiang Mai UniversityChiang MaiThailand
  5. 5.Center of Calcium and Bone Research (COCAB), Faculty of ScienceMahidol UniversityBangkokThailand
  6. 6.Department of Physiology, Faculty of ScienceMahidol UniversityBangkokThailand
  7. 7.Institute of Molecular BiosciencesMahidol UniversityNakhon PathomThailand
  8. 8.The Academy of Science, The Royal Society of Thailand, DusitBangkokThailand

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