Modeled industry-wide food and beverage reformulations reduce the gap between current and nutritionally adequate dietary intakes among French adults
- 15 Downloads
The objective was to assess the capacity of food reformulations to reduce the required dietary changes to reach overall nutritional adequacy in the French adult population.
Reformulation standards, defined using the Nestlé Nutritional Profiling System (NNPS), were applied to the French food composition database (CIQUAL-2013), classifying foods into “PASS” or “FAIL”. Baseline nutritional intakes were estimated for 1838 adults of the INCA2 French national survey according to three scenarios based on: (1) the original food composition database (CURRENT), (2) a “reformulated” database in which the nutrient composition of FAIL products was adjusted to the NNPS standards (REFORMULATION), and (3) a “substituted” database in FAIL products were replaced by the most nutritionally similar PASS products from the same NNPS-category (SUBSTITUTION). For each scenario, starting from each baseline diet, a new optimized diet was modeled to fulfill a complete set of nutrient recommendations while remaining closest to the respective baseline diet. To quantify the dietary changes needed to reach nutritional adequacy in the optimized diets, the total dietary deviation (TDD) was calculated as the sum in quantities (grams) of the absolute difference between observed and optimized amount of repertoire foods (i.e., foods already consumed) plus the amount of non-repertoire foods (i.e., new foods added).
TDD was significantly lower in the REFORMULATION and the SUBSTITUTION scenarios compared to CURRENT (1269 g/day, 1191 g/day and 1494 g/day, respectively). This was explained by smaller shifts among repertoire foods and less additions of non-repertoire foods.
Nutritional reformulation of the food supply may reduce the dietary changes required to achieve nutritionally adequate diets, but would not suffice to reach the complete set of nutrient recommendations.
KeywordsFood reformulation Linear programming Nutrient profiling
The authors would like to thank Kevin C Mathias for reviewing the manuscript. The study was funded by Nestec SA.
Compliance with ethical standards
The INCA 2 study was conducted according to the guidelines laid down in the Declaration of Helsinki and all procedures involving human subjects/patients were approved by the French Data Protection Authority (Commission Nationale Informatique et Libertés). All participants gave their informed consent prior to their inclusion in the study.
Conflict of interest
Nestec SA funded this study. At time of submission, GM was employed by Nestec SA; MM and LP were employed by MS-Nutrition, which received funding from Nestec SA to conduct this study.
- 4.WCRF (2017) I nourishing framework examples of policy actions examples of where implemented what the action involvesGoogle Scholar
- 5.Martinez SW, Levin D (2017) United States Department of Agriculture An Assessment of Product Turnover in the U.S. Food Industry and Effects on Nutrient ContentGoogle Scholar
- 6.WHO/IASO (2010) Nutrient profiling: Report of a WHO/IASO technical meeting. World Health Organization, London, UKGoogle Scholar
- 17.Guthrie HA, Scheer JC (1981) Validity of a dietary score for assessing nutrient adequacy. J Am Diet Assoc 78:240–245Google Scholar
- 23.World Health Organization (2003) Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases. Report of a joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation. WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- 24.Martin A (2001) Apports nutritionnels conseillés pour la population Française. 3e édition. [Recommended dietary intakes for the French population 3rd edition], TEC&DOC. Paris: LavoisierGoogle Scholar