Betaine-rich sugar beet molasses protects from homocysteine-induced reduction of survival in Caenorhabditis elegans

  • Alice Drobny
  • Hedda Meloh
  • Eike Wächtershäuser
  • Bernhard Hellmann
  • Andreas. S. Mueller
  • Jan Dirk van der Klis
  • Elena Fitzenberger
  • Uwe WenzelEmail author
Original Contribution



Homocysteine (Hcy) in humans represents a blood-borne biomarker which predicts the risk of age-related diseases and mortality. Using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we tested whether feeding betaine-rich sugar beet molasses affects the survival under heat stress in the presence of Hcy, in spite of a gene loss in betaine–homocysteine methyltransferase.


Knockdown of the genes relevant for remethylation or transsulfuration of Hcy was achieved by RNA interference (RNAi). Survival assay was conducted under heat stress at 37 °C and Hcy levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.


Addition of 500 mg/l betaine-rich sugar beet molasses (SBM) prevented the survival reduction that was caused by exposure to Hcy at 37 °C. Although SBM was no longer capable of reducing Hcy levels under RNAi versus homologues for 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase or cystathionine-β-synthase, it still enabled the survival extension by SBM under exposure to Hcy. In contrast, RNAi for the small heat shock protein hsp-16.2 or the foxo transcription factor daf-16 both prevented the extension of survival by betaine-rich molasses in the presence of Hcy.


Our studies demonstrate that betaine-rich SBM is able to prevent survival reduction caused by Hcy in C. elegans in dependence on hsp-16.2 and daf-16 but independent of the remethylation pathway.


Caenorhabditis elegans Betaine Homocysteine Heat shock proteins Daf-16 



betaine–homocysteine methyltransferase






enhanced chemiluminescence


γ-Glutamylcysteine ligase


reduced glutathione










RNA interference




sugar beet molasses


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that no conflict of interest exists.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alice Drobny
    • 1
  • Hedda Meloh
    • 1
  • Eike Wächtershäuser
    • 1
  • Bernhard Hellmann
    • 1
  • Andreas. S. Mueller
    • 2
  • Jan Dirk van der Klis
    • 2
  • Elena Fitzenberger
    • 1
  • Uwe Wenzel
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Molecular Nutrition Research, Interdisciplinary Research CentreJustus-Liebig-University of GiessenGiessenGermany
  2. 2.Delacon Biotechnik GmbHSteyreggAustria

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