Reduced meal frequency alleviates high-fat diet-induced lipid accumulation and inflammation in adipose tissue of pigs under the circumstance of fixed feed allowance
The present study was conducted to determine whether reduced meal frequency (MF) could restore high-fat diet (HFD)-modified phenotypes and microbiota under the condition of fixed feed allowance.
A total of 32 barrows with initial weight of 61.6 ± 0.8 kg were assigned to two diets [control diet (CON) versus HFD] and two meal frequencies [12 equal meals/day (M12) versus 2 equal meals/day (M2)], the trial lasted 8 weeks. The lipid metabolism and inflammatory response in adipose tissue as well as the profiles of intestinal microbiota and bacterial-derived metabolites were determined.
M2 versus M12 feeding regimen decreased perirenal fat weight and serum triglyceride and liposaccharide (LPS) concentrations in HFD-fed pigs (P < 0.05). Reduced MF down-regulated mRNA expression of lipoprotein lipase, CD36 molecule, interleukin 1 beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha, toll-like receptor 4, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MYD88), and nuclear factor kappa beta 1 as well as protein expression of MYD88 in perirenal fat of HFD-fed pigs (P < 0.05). M2 feeding regimen increased abundance of Prevotella and decreased abundance of Bacteroides in colonic content of HFD-fed pigs (P < 0.05). No difference in short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) profile in colonic content was observed among four groups (P > 0.05).
Our results suggested that M2 versus M12 feeding regimen ameliorated HFD-induced fat deposition and inflammatory response by decreasing fatty acid uptake and deactivating LPS/TLR4 signaling pathway in adipose tissue and restoring microbiota composition in distal intestine, without affecting SCFAs profile in distal luminal content.
KeywordsMeal frequency High-fat diet Lipid metabolism Inflammation Microbiota Short-chain fatty acids
This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31802069) and Sichuan Science and Technology Program (2018JY0225).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 16.Bazin R, Ferré P (2001) Assays of lipogenic enzymes. Methods Mol Biol 155:121–127Google Scholar
- 17.Peng S, Shi Z, Gao Q et al (2017) Dietary n-3 LC-PUFAs affect lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) activities and mRNA expression during vitellogenesis and ovarian fatty acid composition of female silver pomfret (Pampus argenteus) broodstock. Aquacult Nutr 23(4):692–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar