Diet quality index for Brazilian adolescents: the ERICA study
- 71 Downloads
This study aimed to assess the dietary patterns of adolescents using a food-based diet quality index and their compliance with a healthy dietary guideline
Participants included 71,553 Brazilian adolescents (12–17 years old) from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional school-based multicenter study.. Dietary intake was measured by one 24-h recall. A second recall was collected in a random subsample (~ 10%) to correct within-person variability. The Diet Quality Index for Adolescents adapted for Brazilians (DQIA-BR) was used to measure the overall quality of the dietary intake. The National Cancer Institute method was applied to estimate usual dietary intake. The DQIA-BR and the distribution of its components (quality, diversity, and equilibrium) were analyzed according to sex, geographical area, and type of school
The mean (SD) DQIA-BR scores were 14.8% (6.1%) for females and 19.0% (6.3%) for males. All analyzed strata revealed low scores of DQIA-BR and its components. The median usual intake was five to sevenfold below the recommendations for vegetables and fruits and approximately twofold below the recommendations for dairy. The highest DQIA-BR mean scores were found in the northern region [17.0% (6.4%), females; 20.7% (6.3%), males]. Adolescents in both types of schools had relatively similar median intakes of snacks (~ 85 g) and sugared drinks (~ 600 ml)
The overall diet quality of Brazilian adolescents is inadequate based on evaluated parameters in all regions and socioeconomic backgrounds.
KeywordsDiet quality Dietary index Dietary patterns Nutrition assessment Adolescents
This work was supported by the Brazilian Funding Authority for Studies and Projects (FINEP) (Grant number 01090421) and the Brazilian National Council of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq) (Grant numbers 565037/2010-2, 405009/2012-7, 457050/2013-6), and DBR received the Spouse Education Fund (SEF) grant from the Community Committee for International Students of Stanford University Bechtel International Center (CA, USA) to participate in a Stata software course. FINEP, CNPq, and SEF had no role in the design, analysis or writing of this article. DBR would like to acknowledge the Spouse Education Fund (SEF) grant provided by the Community Committee for International Students of Stanford University (CA, USA). The authors gratefully acknowledge Inge Huybrechts from the HELENA study (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) for her help in the calculation of the diet index and Eliseu Verly Júnior for being a consultant.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The present study was approved by the appropriate ethics committee, and all procedures performed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments.
- 1.World Health Organization (2011) Global status report on noncommunicable diseases 2010. World Health Organization, Geneva. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/44579/9789240686458_eng.pdf;jsessionid=44A9657450CEB0457EAC84CE149CB243?sequence=1 Google Scholar
- 8.World Health Organization (2016) Report of the commission on ending childhood obesity. GenevaGoogle Scholar
- 11.World Health Organization (2005) Nutrition in Adolescence: issues for the health sector: issues in adolescent health and development. GenevaGoogle Scholar
- 18.Bloch KV, Szklo M, Kuschnir MC et al (2015) The Study of cardiovascular risk in adolescents–ERICA: rationale, design and sample characteristics of a national survey examining cardiovascular risk factor profile in Brazilian adolescents. BMC Public Health 15:94. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-1442-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 19.Habicht J (1974) Standardization of quantitative epidemiological methods in the field. Boletin de La Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana Pan American Sanitary Bureau 76(5):375Google Scholar
- 21.Lohman T, Roche A, Martorell R (1991) Anthropometric standardization reference manual. Human Kinetics Books, Champaign, IllinoisGoogle Scholar
- 28.Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (2011) Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares (POF), 2008–2009: tabela de medidas referidas para os alimentos consumidos no Brasil. Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, Rio de Janeiro. http://biblioteca.ibge.gov.br/visualizacao/livros/liv50002.pdf Google Scholar
- 29.Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (2011) Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares (POF), 2008–2009: tabela de medidas referidas para os alimentos consumidos no Brasil. Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, Rio de Janeiro. https://biblioteca.ibge.gov.br/visualizacao/livros/liv50000.pdf Google Scholar
- 30.Silva TL, Klein CH, Souza AeM et al (2016) Response rate in the study of cardiovascular risks in adolescents—ERICA. Rev Saude Publica 50 Suppl 1. https://doi.org/10.1590/S01518-8787.2016050006730
- 34.Joint FAO/WHO, Consultation (1996) Preparation and Use of Food-based Dietary Guidelines. WHO Technical Report Series 880. Report of a joint FAO/WHO consultation. NicosiaGoogle Scholar
- 35.Ministério da Saúde (2006) Guia Alimentar para a população brasileira: promovendo a alimentação saudável. Secretaria de Atenção à Saúde, BrasíliaGoogle Scholar
- 41.Monteiro LS, Rodrigues PRM, Veiga, GVd et al (2016) Diet quality among adolescents has deteriorated: a panel study in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, 2003–2008. Cadernos de Saude Publica 32 (12):e00124715Google Scholar
- 49.Diethelm K, Jankovic N, Moreno LA et al (2012) Food intake of European adolescents in the light of different food-based dietary guidelines: results of the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study. Public Health Nutr 15(3):386–398. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980011001935 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 55.Fernández-Ortega M (2008) Consumo de fuentes de calcio en adolescentes mujeres en Panamá. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición 58(3):286Google Scholar
- 57.World Health Organization (2015) Guideline: sugars intake for adults and children. World Health Organization, Geneva. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/149782/9789241549028_eng.pdf?sequence=1 Google Scholar
- 60.Oliveira JS, Barufaldi LA, Abreu GeA et al (2016) ERICA: use of screens and consumption of meals and snacks by Brazilian adolescents. Rev Saude Publica 50 Suppl 1. https://doi.org/10.1590/S01518-8787.2016050006680
- 69.Willett W (2013) Nutritional Epidemiology: Monographs in epidemiology and biostatistics, vol 40, 3rd ednGoogle Scholar