Antioxidant and antigenotoxic activities of Ginkgo biloba L. leaf extract are retained after in vitro gastrointestinal digestive conditions
The recognized biological properties of Ginkgo biloba extracts potentiate their utilization as an ingredient for functional foods. However, the digestive conditions can affect the chemical composition of the extracts and consequently their biological properties, which can lead to food safety problems. Thus, the impact of in vitro-simulated upper gastrointestinal tract digestion on the chemical composition and bioactivity of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (GBE) was evaluated.
Physicochemical conditions of human digestion were simulated in vitro, and its impact on the chemical composition of GBE was investigated by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. The persistence of bioactivity was investigated by subjecting GBE and the in vitro digested extract (DGBE) to the same methodology. Antioxidant properties were assessed using 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate to measure the intracellular oxidation of Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells pre-incubated with GBE or DGBE and exposed to H2O2. Antigenotoxicity was tested by comet assay in HT-29 colon cancer cells pre-incubated with GBE or DGBE and challenged with H2O2.
The chemical analysis revealed a considerable change in chemical composition upon digestion. Pre-incubation with GBE or DGBE attenuated the H2O2-imposed intracellular oxidation in wild-type S. pombe cells, unlike the oxidative stress response-affected mutants sty1 and pap1, and decreased H2O2-induced DNA damage in HT-29 cells. The extracts did not induce toxicity in these eukaryotic models.
The chemical composition of GBE was affected by in vitro digestion, but the antioxidant and antigenotoxic activities persisted. Therefore, G. biloba extract may be suitable for use as food additive and contribute to a healthy colon.
KeywordsAntioxidant Antigenotoxic DNA damage Comet assay Schizosaccharomyces pombe Colonocytes
In vitro digested Ginkgo biloba leaf extract
Gallic acid equivalents
Ginkgo biloba leaf extract
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, disodium salt
Reactive oxygen species
Total phenolic content
This work is supported by European Investment Funds by FEDER/COMPETE/POCI—Operational Competitiveness and Internationalization Programme, under Project POCI-01-0145-FEDER-006958 and National Funds by FCT—Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology, under the project UID/AGR/04033/2019. This work has also been funded by national funds through FCT—Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia for Centre of Chemistry (UID/QUI/00686/2013 and UID/QUI/0686/2016).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.
The manuscript does not contain clinical studies or patient data.
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