Selenium and large artery structure and function: a 10-year prospective study
- 3 Downloads
Despite selenium’s beneficial effects in counteracting oxidative stress, inflammation, and vascular endothelial dysfunction, controversial results exist regarding the long-term associations between selenium and atherosclerosis, arterial stiffness, and hypertension. We investigated in normal and selenium-deficient groups (and the total group), whether serum selenium relates to measures of large artery structure and function over 10 years.
This longitudinal study included black adults from rural and urban areas in South Africa. Serum selenium and blood pressure were measured at baseline (N = 987). At follow-up, carotid intima media thickness (IMT), cross-sectional wall area (CSWA), carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (c-fPWV), and blood pressure were measured (N = 718). Selenium deficiency was classified as serum levels < 8 µg/100 ml.
In multivariable-adjusted regression analyses performed in the normal selenium group, c-fPWV after 10 years was negatively associated with baseline selenium (β = − 0.09; p = 0.016). In the normal selenium group, baseline (but not 10 years) blood pressure also associated negatively with baseline selenium (β = − 0.09; p = 0.007). Both IMT (β = 0.12; p = 0.001) and CSWA (β = 0.10; p = 0.003) after 10 years associated positively with baseline selenium in the total, normal, and selenium-deficient groups.
We found a long-term vascular protective association of selenium on arterial stiffness and blood pressure in Africans with normal selenium levels, supporting the notion that selenium fulfills a vascular protective role. In contrast, we found a potential detrimental association between selenium and carotid wall thickness, particularly evident in individuals within the highest quartile of serum selenium.
KeywordsCarotid intima media thickness Atherosclerosis Pulse wave velocity Arterial stiffness Blood pressure Micronutrient
We would like to thank all the participants, students, and supporting staff of the PURE study and particularly: (1) PURE-SA research team, field workers, and office staff at the North-West University, South Africa. (2) PURE-International: The PURE project office staff at the Population Health Research Institute (PHRI), Hamilton Health Sciences, and McMaster University, ON, Canada.
RS was responsible for the planning, writing, and composition of the manuscript as well as the statistical analyses. CMCM, AES, and JMvR gave recommendations for the framework, writing, and composition of the manuscript as well as the methodology. They also supervised the statistical analyses and helped with the formulation of the tables and figures.
This project was funded by the South African Netherlands Research Programme on Alternatives in Development, North-West University, Population Health Research Institute, Roche Diagnostics (South Africa) and South African Medical Research Council, South African National Research Foundation (NRF), and South African Sugar Association (SASA) for the analyses (Grant number: Project 249). Opinions expressed and conclusions are those of the authors and are not necessarily to be attributed to the NRF.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.
- 3.Schutte AE, Botha S, Fourie CMT, Gafane-Matemane LF, Kruger R, Lammertyn L, Malan L, Mels CMC, Schutte R, Smith W, van Rooyen JM, Ware LJ, Huisman HW (2017) Recent advances in understanding hypertension development in sub-Saharan Africa. J Hum Hypertens 31:491–500. https://doi.org/10.1038/jhh.2017.18 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 9.Lewin MH, Arthur JR, Riemersma RA, Nicol F, Walker SW, Millar EM, Howie AF, Beckett GJ (2002) Selenium supplementation acting through the induction of thioredoxin reductase and glutathione peroxidase protects the human endothelial cell line EAhy926 from damage by lipid hydroperoxides. BBA Mol Cell Res 1593:85–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-4889(02)00333-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 11.Burk RF, Hill KE (2005) Selenoprotein P: an extracellular protein with unique physical characteristics and a role in selenium homeostasis. Annu Rev Nutr 25:215–235. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.nutr.24.012003.132120 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 14.Alehagen U, Johansson P, Bjornstedt M, Rosen A, Dahlstrom U (2013) Cardiovascular mortality and N-terminal-proBNP reduced after combined selenium and coenzyme Q10 supplementation: a 5-year prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial among elderly Swedish citizens. Int J Cardiol 167:1860–1866. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2012.04.156 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 19.Teo K, Chow CK, Vaz M, Rangarajan S, Yusuf S, Group PI-W (2009) The prospective urban rural epidemiology (PURE) study: examining the impact of societal influences on chronic noncommunicable diseases in low-, middle-, and high-income countries. Am Heart J 158:1–7 e1. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2009.04.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 20.Schutte AE, Schutte R, Huisman HW, van Rooyen JM, Fourie CM, Malan NT, Malan L, Mels CM, Smith W, Moss SJ, Towers GW, Kruger HS, Wentzel-Viljoen E, Vorster HH, Kruger A (2012) Are behavioural risk factors to be blamed for the conversion from optimal blood pressure to hypertensive status in Black South Africans? A 5-year prospective study. Int J Epidemiol 41:1114–1123. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dys106 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 22.Seedat Y, Rayner B (2012) South african hypertension guideline 2011. S Afr Med J 102:57–84Google Scholar
- 23.Van Bortel LM, Laurent S, Boutouyrie P, Chowienczyk P, Cruickshank JK, De Backer T, Filipovsky J, Huybrechts S, Mattace-Raso FU, Protogerou AD, Schillaci G, Segers P, Vermeersch S, Weber T, Artery S, European Society of Hypertension Working Group on Vascular S, Function, European Network for Noninvasive Investigation of Large A (2012) Expert consensus document on the measurement of aortic stiffness in daily practice using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. J. Hypertens 30:445–448. https://doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0b013e32834fa8b0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 24.Touboul PJ, Hennerici MG, Meairs S, Adams H, Amarenco P, Bornstein N, Csiba L, Desvarieux M, Ebrahim S, Hernandez Hernandez R, Jaff M, Kownator S, Naqvi T, Prati P, Rundek T, Sitzer M, Schminke U, Tardif JC, Taylor A, Vicaut E, Woo KS (2012) Mannheim carotid intima-media thickness and plaque consensus (2004–2006–2011). An update on behalf of the advisory board of the 3rd, 4th and 5th watching the risk symposia, at the 13th, 15th and 20th European Stroke Conferences, Mannheim, Germany, 2004, Brussels, Belgium, 2006, and Hamburg, Germany, 2011. Cerebrovasc Dis 34:290–296. https://doi.org/10.1159/000343145 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 25.Laurent S, Cockcroft J, Van Bortel L, Boutouyrie P, Giannattasio C, Hayoz D, Pannier B, Vlachopoulos C, Wilkinson I, Struijker-Boudier H, European Network for Non-invasive Investigation of Large A (2006) Expert consensus document on arterial stiffness: methodological issues and clinical applications. Eur Heart J 27:2588–2605. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehl254 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 27.Mancia G, Fagard R, Narkiewicz K, Redon J, Zanchetti A, Böhm M, Christiaens T, Cifkova R, De Backer G, Dominiczak A (2013) 2013 ESH/ESC guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension: the Task Force for the Management of Arterial Hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Blood Press 22:193–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 28.Seedat Y, Rayner B (2012) South African hypertension guideline 2011. S Afr Med J 102:60–83Google Scholar
- 30.Stranges S, Marshall JR, Natarajan R, Donahue RP, Trevisan M, Combs GF, Cappuccio FP, Ceriello A, Reid ME (2007) Effects of long-term selenium supplementation on the incidence of type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 147:217–223. https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-147-4-200708210-00175 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 32.Moore JA, Noiva R, Wells IC (1984) Selenium concentrations in plasma of patients with arteriographically defined coronary atherosclerosis. Clin Chem 30:1171–1173Google Scholar
- 35.Xun P, Liu K, Morris JS, Daviglus ML, He K (2010) Longitudinal association between toenail selenium levels and measures of subclinical atherosclerosis: the CARDIA trace element study. Atherosclerosis 210:662–667. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2010.01.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 37.Fernandez-Friera L, Fuster V, Lopez-Melgar B, Oliva B, Garcia-Ruiz JM, Mendiguren J, Bueno H, Pocock S, Ibanez B, Fernandez-Ortiz A, Sanz J (2017) Normal LDL-cholesterol levels are associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in the absence of risk factors. J Am Coll Cardiol 70:2979–2991. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2017.10.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 38.Latheef SAA, Radhika K, Subramanyam G (2014) Histopathological changes due to the effect of selenium in experimental cockerels. Indian J Med Res 139:927–932Google Scholar
- 43.Hamanishi T, Furuta H, Kato H, Doi A, Tamai M, Shimomura H, Sakagashira S, Nishi M, Sasaki H, Sanke T, Nanjo K (2004) Functional variants in the glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1) gene are associated with increased intima-media thickness of carotid arteries and risk of macrovascular diseases in japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes 53:2455–2460. https://doi.org/10.2337/diabetes.53.9.2455 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 44.Nemoto M, Nishimura R, Sasaki T, Hiki Y, Miyashita Y, Nishioka M, Fujimoto K, Sakuma T, Ohashi T, Fukuda K, Eto Y, Tajima N (2007) Genetic association of glutathione peroxidase-1 with coronary artery calcification in type 2 diabetes: a case control study with multi-slice computed tomography. Cardiovasc Diabetol 6:23. https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2840-6-23 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 52.Zureik M, Galan P, Bertrais S, Mennen L, Czernichow S, Blacher J, Ducimetiere P, Hercberg S (2004) Effects of long-term daily low-dose supplementation with antioxidant vitamins and minerals on structure and function of large arteries. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 24:1485–1491. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.ATV.0000136648.62973.c8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 53.Virtamo J, Valkeila E, Alfthan G, Punsar S, Huttunen JK, Karvonen MJ (1985) Serum selenium and the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Am J Epidemiol 122:276–282. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a114099 CrossRefGoogle Scholar