Association between dietary cadmium intake and early gastric cancer risk in a Korean population: a case–control study
Foods such as grains and vegetables are the dominant sources of exposure to cadmium, which has been classified as a carcinogen by various public health agencies. Cadmium exposure is a growing concern due to its associations with numerous harmful health effects, including gastric cancer risk. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of dietary cadmium intake and the consumption of cadmium-contributing foods with early gastric cancer risk.
A case–control study including 1245 subjects (cases, 415; controls, 830) was conducted in Korea. The dietary cadmium intake and the consumption of cadmium-contributing foods were assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire.
After adjustment for covariates, the gastric cancer risk was increased for participants in the highest tertile of cadmium intake [odds ratios (ORs) 1.33, 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) 0.94–1.88], but there was no significance. Both female (ORs 2.71, 95% CIs 1.37–5.36) and male (ORs 1.63, 95% CIs 1.07–2.50) participants in the highest tertile of rice consumption had a higher gastric cancer risk than did those in the lowest tertile. Men in the highest tertile of crab consumption had a gastric cancer risk 2.23 times greater than that of men in the lowest tertile (ORs 2.23, 95% CIs 1.21–4.13), but a difference was not seen in women.
Future studies examining the causal effects of dietary cadmium intake and the consumption of cadmium-contributing foods on early gastric cancer risk in large-scale prospective cohorts are recommended.
KeywordsDietary cadmium Cadmium-contributing food Gastric cancer Case–control study
Food frequency questionnaire
- 95% CIs
95% confidence intervals
- H. pylori
National Cancer Center
Cancer Prevention and Detection
Institutional Review Board
Body Mass Index
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Reactive oxygen species
Funding was provided by National Cancer Center (Grant nos. 1410260, 1810090, and 1810980).
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