Effects of probiotics, prebiotics or synbiotics on jawbone in obese-insulin resistant rats
Chronic high-fat diet (HFD) consumption results in gut dysbiosis, systemic inflammation, obese-insulin resistance, and osteoporosis of the jawbones. The probiotics, prebiotics or synbiotics alleviated gut dysbiosis and the metabolic disturbance in HFD-induced obesity. However, the effects on jawbone properties have not been investigated. This study aimed to investigate the effects of probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei HII01, prebiotic xylooligosaccharide (XOS), and synbiotics on the jawbone properties along with metabolic parameters, gut and systemic inflammation in HFD-fed rats.
Forty-eight male Wistar rats were fed with either a HFD or normal diet for 12 weeks. Rats in each group were subdivided into four subgroups to be treated with either vehicle, probiotics, prebiotics, or synbiotics for the additional 12 weeks. Blood samples, gut, bone marrows, and jawbones were collected to determine metabolic parameters, inflammation, and bone properties.
The HFD-fed rats developed obese-insulin resistance, as indicated by increased body weight, dyslipidemia and decreased insulin sensitivity. Serum lipopolysaccharide levels and interleukin-6 mRNA expression in the ileum and bone marrows were elevated. Altered bone metabolism and the impaired jawbone properties were evident as indicated by decreased bone mineral density with increased trabecular separation. Reduced ultimate load and stiffness were observed in HFD-fed rats. Treatments with probiotics, prebiotics or synbiotics in HFD-fed rats improved metabolic parameters and reduced inflammation. However, no alterations in jawbone properties were found in all treatments.
The osteoporosis of the jawbone occurred in obese-insulin resistance, and treatments with probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics were not sufficient to improve the jawbone properties.
KeywordsLactobacillus paracasei HII01 Xylooligosaccharide Synbiotics Obesity Insulin resistance Jawbone
This work was supported by Thailand Research Fund (TRF) Grants: TRF-Senior Research Scholar RTA6080003 (to SCC), RTA6080007 (to N. Charoenphandhu), IRN60W0001 (to N. Charoenphandhu) and MRG 6180187 (to PT); a CMU 50th Anniversary grant by Chiang Mai University (PHD/014/2557 SE&SCC); a NSTDA Research Chair Grant from the National Science and Technology Development Agency Thailand (N. Chattipakorn) and a Chiang Mai University Center of Excellence Award (N. Chattipakorn).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.
- 18.Cani PD, Amar J, Iglesias MA, Poggi M, Knauf C, Bastelica D, Neyrinck AM, Fava F, Tuohy KM, Chabo C, Waget A, Delmee E, Cousin B, Sulpice T, Chamontin B, Ferrieres J, Tanti JF, Gibson GR, Casteilla L, Delzenne NM, Alessi MC, Burcelin R (2007) Metabolic endotoxemia initiates obesity and insulin resistance. Diabetes 56(7):1761–1772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 21.Tunapong W, Apaijai N, Yasom S, Tanajak P, Wanchai K, Chunchai T, Kerdphoo S, Eaimworawuthikul S, Thiennimitr P, Pongchaidecha A, Lungkaphin A, Pratchayasakul W, Chattipakorn SC, Chattipakorn N (2017) Chronic treatment with prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics attenuated cardiac dysfunction by improving cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction in male obese insulin-resistant rats. Eur J Nutr. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-017-1482-3 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 22.Chunchai T, Thunapong W, Yasom S, Wanchai K, Eaimworawuthikul S, Metzler G, Lungkaphin A, Pongchaidecha A, Sirilun S, Chaiyasut C, Pratchayasakul W, Thiennimitr P, Chattipakorn N, Chattipakorn SC (2018) Decreased microglial activation through gut-brain axis by prebiotics, probiotics, or synbiotics effectively restored cognitive function in obese-insulin resistant rats. J Neuroinflamm 15(1):11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 29.Vasikaran S, Cooper C, Eastell R, Griesmacher A, Morris HA, Trenti T, Kanis JA (2011) International osteoporosis foundation and international federation of clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine position on bone marker standards in osteoporosis. Clin Chem Lab Med 49(8):1271–1274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 34.Scholz-Ahrens KE, Adolphi B, Rochat F, Barclay DV, de Vrese M, Açil Y, Schrezenmeir J (2016) Effects of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics on mineral metabolism in ovariectomized rats—impact of bacterial mass, intestinal absorptive area and reduction of bone turn-over. NFS J 3:41–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 41.Ricoldi MST, Furlaneto FAC, Oliveira LFF, Teixeira GC, Pischiotini JP, Moreira ALG, Ervolino E, de Oliveira MN, Bogsan CSB, Salvador SL, Messora MR (2017) Effects of the probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis on the non-surgical treatment of periodontitis. A histomorphometric, microtomographic and immunohistochemical study in rats. PLoS One 12(6):e0179946CrossRefGoogle Scholar