Chronic refined low-fat diet consumption reduces cholecystokinin satiation in rats

  • Mathilde Guerville
  • M. Kristina Hamilton
  • Charlotte C. Ronveaux
  • Sandrine Ellero-Simatos
  • Helen E. Raybould
  • Gaëlle Boudry
Original Contribution



Reduced ability of cholecystokinin (CCK) to induce satiation contributes to hyperphagia and weight gain in high-fat/high-sucrose (HF/HS) diet-induced obesity, and has been linked to altered gut microbiota. Rodent models of obesity use chow or low-fat (LF) diets as control diets; the latter has been shown to alter gut microbiota and metabolome. We aimed to determine whether LF-diet consumption impacts CCK satiation in rats and if so, whether this is prevented by addition of inulin to LF diet.


Rats (n = 40) were fed, for 8 weeks, a chow diet (chow) or low-fat (10%) or high-fat/high-sucrose (45 and 17%, respectively) refined diets with either 10% cellulose (LF and HF/HS) or 10% inulin (LF-I and HF/HS-I). Caecal metabolome was assessed by 1H-NMR-based metabolomics. CCK satiation was evaluated by measuring the suppression of food intake after intraperitoneal CCK injection (1 or 3 µg/kg).


LF-diet consumption altered the caecal metabolome, reduced caecal weight, and increased IAP activity, compared to chow. CCK-induced inhibition of food intake was abolished in LF diet-fed rats compared to chow-fed rats, while HF/HS diet-fed rats responded only to the highest CCK dose. Inulin substitution ameliorated caecal atrophy, reduced IAP activity, and modulated caecal metabolome, but did not improve CCK-induced satiety in either LF- or HF/HS-fed rats.


CCK signaling is impaired by LF-diet consumption, highlighting that caution must be taken when using LF diet until a more suitable refined control diet is identified.


Obesity Gut-brain axis Metabolomics Vagal afferents Food intake 



The authors would like to thank Cécile Canlet from the French National Infrastructure of Metabolomics and Fluxomics (MetaboHUB-ANR-11-INBS-0010) for her help with the NMR facility and Dr. Olivier Cloarec from Korrigan Sciences Limited for providing the matlab functions for analysis of NMR data. They also want to thank Ricky Stephens for his help in animal experiment.

Author contributions

MG, MKH, CCR, HER, and GB designed research; MG, MKH, CCR, and SES conducted research; MG and SES analyzed data; MG, MKH, SES, HER, and GB wrote the paper. GB had primarily responsibility for final content. All authors read and approved final version.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflict of interest to declare.

Supplementary material

394_2018_1802_MOESM1_ESM.tif (153 kb)
S1 Fig. 1. Assigned 600 MHz 1D NMR spectra of mouse caecal content. The 5–9 ppm region was vertically expanded six times compared to the 0–4.5 ppm region. Keys: 1: bile acids (mixed), 2: butyrate, 3: leucine, 4: isoleucine, 5: valine, 6: propionate, 7: α-ketoisovalerate, 8: ethanol, 9: β-hydroxybutyrate, 10: lipids, 11: lactate, 12: alanine, 13: lysine, 14: acetate, 15: N-acetyl groups, 16: glutamate, 17: succinate, 18: α-ketoglutarate, 19: aspartate, 20: choline, 21: taurine, 22: β-xylose, 23: β-galactose, 24: β-glucose, 25: α-arabinose, 26: α-xylose, 27: α-glucose, 28: α-galactose, 29: uracil, 30: tyrosine, 31: phenylalanine, 32: adenine, 33: hypoxanthine, and 34: formate. (TIF 152 KB)
394_2018_1802_MOESM2_ESM.docx (15 kb)
S2 Table 1. Correlation coefficients (DOCX 15 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mathilde Guerville
    • 1
  • M. Kristina Hamilton
    • 2
  • Charlotte C. Ronveaux
    • 2
  • Sandrine Ellero-Simatos
    • 3
  • Helen E. Raybould
    • 2
  • Gaëlle Boudry
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut Numecan, INRA INSERM Univ Rennes 1Saint-GillesFrance
  2. 2.Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Cell BiologyUC Davis School of Veterinary MedicineDavisUSA
  3. 3.Toxalim (Research Centre in Food Toxicology), Université de Toulouse, INRA, ENVT, INP-Purpan, UPSToulouseFrance

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