Differences in the dietary requirement for vitamin D among Caucasian and East African women at Northern latitude
- 192 Downloads
Current vitamin D recommendations have been established based on an assumption that there are no differences between Caucasian and other ethnic/racial groups in terms of vitamin D requirements. This assumption, largely made due to the absence of data, is a key knowledge gap identified by a number of authorities.
To test whether the distribution of dietary requirements for maintaining winter serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations ≥ 30 nmol/L (a priority threshold linked to vitamin D deficiency prevention) differ between Caucasian and Somali women living at northerly latitude.
We used data from a 5-month, winter-based, vitamin D3 dose-related randomized, placebo-controlled trial in Somali (n 47) and Causcian women (n 69), aged 21–64-year old, living in Southern Finland (60°N), to model the vitamin D intake–serum 25(OH)D dose–response relationship. Regression analyses were used to predict the vitamin D intake required to maintain 97.5% (as well as 50, 90, and 95%) of women in both ethnic groups above serum 25(OH)D thresholds of 30, 40 and 50 nmol/L.
Using a model which adjusted for baseline 25(OH)D, age, and BMI, the estimated vitamin D intake that maintained serum 25(OH)D ≥ 30 nmol/L in 97.5% of Caucasian and Somali women was 8 and 18 µg/day, respectively. Ethnic differences were also evident at 40 and 50 nmol/L serum 25(OH)D thresholds.
The present study adds further evidence that ethnic differences in the dietary requirement for vitamin D do exist and that dose–response vitamin D intervention studies are required in at-risk target populations specified by ethnicity.
KeywordsVitamin D requirements Ethnic-related differences Dietary reference values RCT
The authors thank all volunteer subjects who participated in the intervention study. We are grateful to the researchers in the Maamu study for their advice on participants’ recruitment. We also thank technician Anu Heiman-Lindh for laboratory analyses at the University of Helsinki and Dr. George Hull at the Cork Centre for Vitamin D and Nutrition Research who helped with some of the serum 25(OH)D analyses. We acknowledge Oy Verman Ab, Kerava, Finland for providing supplements and placebo tablets.
CLA, MK, and KDC are Grant holders and designed the study. FAA, STI, and CLA were involved in the detailed design and coordination of the study. FAA, TÖ, ES, and EMS collected the data. KGD was responsible for the serum 25(OH)D analyses at the Cork Centre for Vitamin D and Nutrition Research, University College Cork, Ireland. KDC and CR performed the statistical analysis. KDC drafted the initial version of the manuscript and all co-authors reviewed, contributed to subsequent drafts and approved the final draft of the manuscript.
This work was carried out within the ODIN project (http://www.odin-vitamin D.eu), which was funded by the European Commission (Grant agreement 613977). The funder was not involved in the design, analysis or writing of this article.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors wish to confirm that there are no known conflicts of interest associated with this publication.
- 1.Seamans KM, Cashman KD (2009) Existing and potentially novel functional markers of vitamin D status: a systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 1997S-2008SGoogle Scholar
- 2.Institute of Medicine (2011) Dietary Reference Intakes for calcium and vitamin D. The National Academies Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
- 3.EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies) Scientific opinion on Dietary Reference Values for vitamin D. EFSA Journal 2016 https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2016
- 4.NORDEN Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (2013) 5th Edn (NNR5)—Vitamin D. http://www.slv.se/en-gb/Startpage-NNR/Public-consultation11/ Accessed Aug 2013
- 5.Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Gordon CM, Hanley DA, Heaney RP, Murad MH, Weaver CM; Endocrine Society (2011) Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin d deficiency: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96:1911–1930Google Scholar
- 7.Schleicher RL, Sternberg MR, Looker AC, Yetley EA, Lacher DA, Sempos CT, Taylor CL, Durazo-Arvizu RA, Maw KL, Chaudhary-Webb M et al (2016) National estimates of serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D and metabolite concentrations measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in the US Population during 2007–2010. J Nutr 146:1051–1061CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 10.Cashman KD, Dowling KG, Škrabáková Z, Kiely M, Lamberg-Allardt C, Durazo-Arvizu RA, Sempos CT, Koskinen S, Lundqvist A, Sundvall J et al (2015) Standardizing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D data from four Nordic population samples using the Vitamin D Standardization Program protocols: Shedding new light on vitamin D status in Nordic individuals. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 75:549–561CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 12.Durazo-Arvizu RA, Camacho P, Bovet P, Forrester T, Lambert EV, Plange-Rhule J, Hoofnagle AN, Aloia J, Tayo B, Dugas LR, Cooper RS, Luke A (2014) 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in African-origin populations at varying latitudes challenges the construct of a physiologic norm. Am J Clin Nutr 100(3):908–914CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 16.Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition Report on Vitamin D and Health (2016) Published online at: http://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/537616/SACN_Vitamin_D_and_Health_report.pdf. Accessed 28 July 2016
- 18.Ng K, Scott JB, Drake BF, Chan AT, Hollis BW, Chandler PD, Bennett GG, Giovannucci EL, Gonzalez-Suarez E, Meyerhardt JA, Emmons KM, Fuchs CS (2014) Dose response to vitamin D supplementation in African Americans: results of a 4-arm, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 99(3):587–598CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 22.Öhlund I, Lind T, Hernell O, Silfverdal SA, Karlsland Åkeson P (2017) Increased vitamin D intake differentiated according to skin color is needed to meet requirements in young Swedish children during winter: a double-blind randomized clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr 106(1):105–112CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 24.Jääskeläinen T, Itkonen ST, Lundqvist A, Erkkola M, Koskela T, Lakkala K, Dowling KG, Hull GL, Kröger H, Karppinen J, Kyllönen E, Härkänen T, Cashman KD, Männistö S, Lamberg-Allardt C (2017) The positive impact of general vitamin D food fortification policy on vitamin D status in a representative adult Finnish population: evidence from an 11-y follow-up based on standardized 25-hydroxyvitamin D data. Am J Clin Nutr 105(6):1512–1520PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 27.Cashman KD, Kiely M, Kinsella M, Durazo-Arvizu RA, Tian L, Zhang Y, Lucey A, Flynn A, Gibney MJ, Vesper HW, Phinney KW, Coates PM, Picciano MF, Sempos CT (2013) Evaluation of Vitamin D Standardization Program protocols for standardizing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D data: a case study of the program’s potential for national nutrition and health surveys. Am J Clin Nutr 97(6):1235–1242CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 28.CDC Vitamin D Standardization Certification Program. Available online at: https://www.cdc.gov/labstandards/pdf/hs/CDC_Certified_Vitamin_D_Procedures.pdf. Accessed 30 Jan 2018
- 29.Cashman KD, Hill TR, Lucey AJ, Taylor N, Seamans KM, Muldowney S, Fitzgerald AP, Flynn A, Barnes MS, Horigan G, Bonham MP, Duffy EM, Strain JJ, Wallace JM, Kiely M (2008) Estimation of the dietary requirement for vitamin D in healthy adults. Am J Clin Nutr 88(6):1535–1542CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 31.R Core Team. A language and environment for statistical computing [Internet]. [cited 2013 Sep 13]. Available from: https://www.r-project.org
- 33.Islam MZ, Viljakainen HT, Kärkkäinen MU, Saarnio E, Laitinen K, Lamberg-Allardt C (2012) Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism during winter in pre-menopausal Bangladeshi and Somali immigrant and ethnic Finnish women: associations with forearm bone mineral density. Br J Nutr 107(2):277–283CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 37.Hansen JG, Tang W, Hootman KC, Brannon PM, Houston DK, Kritchevsky SB, Harris TB, Garcia M, Lohman K, Liu Y, de Boer IH, Kestenbaum BR, Robinson-Cohen C, Siscovick DS, Cassano PA (2015) Genetic and environmental factors are associated with serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in older African Americans. J Nutr 145(4):799–805CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 38.Sollid ST, Hutchinson MY, Fuskevåg OM, Joakimsen RM, Jorde R (2016) Large individual differences in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D response to vitamin D supplementation: effects of genetic factors, body mass index, and baseline concentration. results from a randomized controlled trial. Horm Metab Res 48(1):27–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 42.Darling AL, Hart KH, Gossiel F, Robertson F, Hunt J, Hill TR, Johnsen S, Berry JL, Eastell R, Vieth R, Lanham-New SA (2017) Higher bone resorption excretion in South Asian women vs. White Caucasians and increased bone loss with higher seasonal cycling of vitamin D: Results from the D-FINES cohort study. Bone 98:47–53CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 43.USDA Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Release 4.0 (DSID-4) (2018) Adult Multivitamin/mineral (Adult MVM-2017) Dietary Supplement National Study: Research Summary https://dietarysupplementdatabase.usda.nih.gov/dsid_database/Res%20Summ%20DSID%204%20Adult%20MVM-8-2-17%20final.pdf. Accessed 15 June 2018