Advertisement

Pharmacokinetics of vitamin E, γ-oryzanol, and ferulic acid in healthy humans after the ingestion of a rice bran-enriched porridge prepared with water or with milk

  • Laura A. Calvo-Castro
  • Nadine Sus
  • Christina Schiborr
  • Anja Bosy-Westphal
  • Maria Luisa Duran
  • Doris Fesenmeyer
  • Gerhard Fesenmeyer
  • Jan Frank
Original Contribution
  • 75 Downloads

Abstract

Purpose

In this study, we investigated the absorption and excretion kinetics of antioxidant dietary phytochemicals (vitamin E, γ-oryzanol, and ferulic acid) in healthy humans after the ingestion of an oatmeal porridge supplemented with rice bran extract (RBE) prepared with water or with whole milk, and we compared it with the intake of an equivalent dose of the rice bran content, in the form of RBE oil.

Methods

Twelve healthy volunteers (6 men and 6 women) orally ingested RBE oil (2 g) or RBE-enriched porridge (35 g, including 2-g RBE) with water or with milk, in a three-armed, crossover trial. Blood and urine samples were collected at baseline and up to 24 h after intake. Vitamin E (α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherols and tocotrienols), ferulic acid (FA), and γ-oryzanol (ORY) were quantified by HPLC.

Results

The ingestion of RBE-fortified oatmeal porridge and RBE oil significantly increased FA concentrations in plasma, showing faster absorption and higher maximum plasma concentrations after the intake of the porridges, irrespective of the addition of water or milk. At least part of the FA could have been hydrolyzed from ORY. However, plasma vitamin E concentrations did not increase from baseline, and no intact FA esters (cycloartenyl ferulate, 24-methylenecycloartanyl ferulate, campesteryl ferulate, and β-sitosteryl ferulate) were detected in plasma or urine with any of the meal treatments.

Conclusions

Rice bran extract-enriched porridge and, to a lesser extent, RBE oil, provide relevant sources of bioaccessible and bioavailable ferulic acid, and could be further developed into functional foods with health potential.

Keywords

Ferulic acid Gamma-oryzanol Human study Pharmacokinetics Vitamin E 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This project was funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi) [Grant number KF3207801CS3]. We thank the volunteers for their valuable time and kind disposition to participate in this study. We also thank Svenja Herzog and Jana Distler for their help with sample processing.

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical approval

The trial (F-2015-082) was reviewed and approved by the ethics committee of the State Medical Society of Baden-Württemberg (Germany) and it was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02944084. The protocol was in conformance with the Declaration of Helsinki.

Informed consent

All participants signed a written informed consent before inclusion.

Conflict of interest

Doris Fesenmeyer and Gerhard Fesenmeyer are managing directors of FB Food, the company which produced and kindly provided the porridge for the study. Mr. and Mrs. Fesenmeyer did not participate in the clinical trial, and were not involved in data collection, analysis and interpretation. All the other authors have no conflict of interest to declare.

Supplementary material

394_2018_1770_MOESM1_ESM.docx (17 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 16 KB)
394_2018_1770_MOESM2_ESM.docx (18 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 17 KB)
394_2018_1770_MOESM3_ESM.docx (20 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (DOCX 19 KB)
394_2018_1770_MOESM4_ESM.docx (34 kb)
Supplementary material 4 (DOCX 33 KB)
394_2018_1770_MOESM5_ESM.pdf (56 kb)
Supplementary material 5 (PDF 56 KB)

References

  1. 1.
    World Health Organization (2016) World Health Statistics 2016: monitoring health for the SDGs, sustainale development goals. In: WHO Press. https://www.who.int. Accessed 18 Apr 2017
  2. 2.
    Smetana KJR, Lacina L, Szabo P et al (2016) Ageing as an important risk factor for cancer. Anticancer Res 36:5009–5018.  https://doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.11069 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Paneni F, Diaz Cañestro C, Libby P et al (2017) The aging cardiovascular system: Understanding it at the cellular and clinical levels. J Am Coll Cardiol 69:1952–1967.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2017.01.064 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Prince M, Wimo A, Guerchet M et al (2015) World Alzheimer Report 2015: the global impact of dementia, an analysis of prevalence, incidence, costs and trends. in: http://www.alz.co.uk/research/world-report-2015. Accessed 18 Apr 2017
  5. 5.
    Rescigno T, Micolucci L, Tecce MF, Capasso A (2017) Bioactive nutrients and nutrigenomics in age-related diseases. Molecules 22:1–26.  https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22010105 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Shlisky J, Bloom DE, Beaudreault AR et al (2017) Nutritional considerations for healthy aging and reduction in age-related chronic disease. Adv Nutr 8:17–26.  https://doi.org/10.3945/an.116.013474 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Magrone T, Perez de Heredia F, Jirillo E et al (2013) Functional foods and nutraceuticals as therapeutic tools for the treatment of diet-related diseases. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 91:387–396.  https://doi.org/10.1139/cjpp-2012-0307 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hasler CM (2002) Functional foods: benefits, concerns and challenges-a position paper from the American Council on Science and Health. J Nutr 132:3772–3781.  https://doi.org/10.1002/mus.20330 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Alissa EM, Ferns GA (2012) Functional foods and nutraceuticals in the primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. J Nutr Metab 2012:569486.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/569486 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hou Q, Li Y, Li L et al (2015) The metabolic effects of oats intake in patients with Type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrients 7:10369–10387.  https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7125536 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Butt MS, Tahir-Nadeem M, Khan MKI et al (2008) Oat: Unique among the cereals. Eur J Nutr 47:68–79.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-008-0698-7 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Thies F, Masson LF, Boffetta P, Kris-Etherton P (2014) Oats and CVD risk markers: a systematic literature review. Br J Nutr 112:S19–S30.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114514002281 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Singh R, De S, Belkheir A (2013) Avena sativa (oat), a potential neutraceutical and therapeutic agent: an overview. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 53:126–144.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2010.526725 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gangopadhyay N, Hossain MB, Rai DK, Brunton NP (2015) A review of extraction and analysis of bioactives in oat and barley and scope for use of novel food processing technologies. Molecules 20:10884–10909.  https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules200610884 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Peterson DM, Jensen CM, Hoffman DL, Mannerstedt-Fogelfors B (2007) Oat tocols: saponification vs. direct extraction and analysis in high-oil genotypes. Cereal Chem 84:56–60.  https://doi.org/10.1094/CCHEM-84-1-0056 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gul K, Yousuf B, Singh AK et al (2015) Rice bran: nutritional values and its emerging potential for development of functional food—a review. Bioact Carbohydr Diet Fibre 6:24–30.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bcdf.2015.06.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Henderson AJ, Ollila CA, Kumar A et al (2012) Chemopreventive properties of dietary rice bran: current status and future prospects. Adv Nutr 3:643–653.  https://doi.org/10.3945/an.112.002303.643 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kaup RM, Khayyal MT, Verspohl EJ (2013) Antidiabetic effects of a standardized egyptian rice bran extract. Phyther Res 27:264–271.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.4705 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hagl S, Asseburg H, Heinrich M et al (2016) Effects of long-term rice bran extract supplementation on survival, cognition and brain mitochondrial function in aged NMRI mice. Neuromolecular Med 18:347–363.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12017-016-8420-z CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hagl S, Kocher A, Schiborr C et al (2013) Rice bran extract protects from mitochondrial dysfunction in guinea pig brains. Pharmacol Res 76:17–27.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2013.06.008 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hagl S, Berressem D, Grewal R et al (2016) Rice bran extract improves mitochondrial dysfunction in brains of aged NMRI mice. Nutr Neurosci 19:1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1179/1476830515Y.0000000040 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Justo ML, Candiracci M, Dantas AP et al (2013) Rice bran enzymatic extract restores endothelial function and vascular contractility in obese rats by reducing vascular inflammation and oxidative stress. J Nutr Biochem 24:1453–1461.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2012.12.004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nhung BT, Tuyen LD, Linh VA et al (2016) Rice bran extract reduces the risk of atherosclerosis in post-menopausal Vietnamese women. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 62:295–302.  https://doi.org/10.3177/jnsv.62.295 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cicero AFG, Gaddi A (2001) Rice bran oil and gamma-oryzanol in the treatment of hyperlipoproteinaemias and other conditions. Phyther Res 15:277–289.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.907 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Most MM, Tulley R, Morales S, Lefevre M (2005) Rice bran oil, not fiber, lowers cholesterol in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 81:64–68CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Xu Z, Hua N, Godber JS (2001) Antioxidant activity of tocopherols, tocotrienols, and y-oryzanol components from rice bran against cholesterol oxidation accelerated by 2,2′-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride. J Agric Food Chem 49:2077–2081.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0012852 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Van Hung P (2016) Phenolic compounds of cereals and their antioxidant capacity. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 56:25–35.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2012.708909 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jeanes YM, Hall WL, Ellard S et al (2004) The absorption of vitamin E is influenced by the amount of fat in a meal and the food matrix. Br J Nutr 92:575.  https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN20041249 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Leonard SW, Good CK, Gugger ET, Traber MG (2004) Vitamin E bioavailability from fortified breakfast cereal is greater than that from encapsulated supplements. Am J Clin Nutr 79:86–92CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dimitrov NV, Meyer C, Gilliland D et al (1991) Plasma tocopherol concentrations in response to supplemental vitamin E. Am J Clin Nutr 53:723–729CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kern SM, Bennett RN, Mellon FA et al (2003) Absorption of hydroxycinnamates in humans after high-bran cereal consumption. J Agric Food Chem 51:6050–6055.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0302299 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Stalmach A, Mullen W, Barron D et al (2009) Metabolite profiling of hydroxycinnamate derivatives in plasma and urine after the ingestion of coffee by humans: identification of biomarkers of coffee consumption. Drug Metab Dispos 37:1749–1758.  https://doi.org/10.1124/dmd.109.028019 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Frank J, Lee S, Leonard SW et al (2008) Sex differences in the inhibition of gamma-tocopherol metabolism by a single dose of dietary sesame oil in healthy subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 87:1723–1729CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Grebenstein N, Frank J (2012) Rapid baseline-separation of all eight tocopherols and tocotrienols by reversed-phase liquid-chromatography with a solid-core pentafluorophenyl column and their sensitive quantification in plasma and liver. J Chromatogr A 1243:39–46.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2012.04.042 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Food and Drug Administration (2001) Guidance for Industry: bioanalytical method validation. Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER). http://www.labcompliance.de/documents/FDA/FDA-Others/Laboratory/f-507-bioanalytical-4252fnl.pdf. Accessed 11 Jan 2016
  36. 36.
    Wagner BD, Accurso FJ, Laguna TA (2010) The applicability of urinary creatinine as a method of specimen normalization in the cystic fibrosis population. J Cyst Fibros 9:212–216.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcf.2010.02.004 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Shahidi F, de Camargo AC (2016) Tocopherols and tocotrienols in common and emerging dietary sources: occurrence, applications, and health benefits. Int J Mol Sci 17:1745.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17101745 CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Galli F, Azzi A, Birringer M et al (2017) Vitamin E: emerging aspects and new directions. Free Radic Biol Med 102:16–36.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2016.09.017 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Brigelius-Flohé R, Kelly FJ, Salonen JT et al (2002) The European perspective on vitamin E: current knowledge and future research. Am J Clin Nutr 76:703–716CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Schneider C (2005) Chemistry and biology of vitamin E. Mol Nutr Food Res 49:7–30.  https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.200400049 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Schmölz L, Birringer M, Lorkowski S, Wallert M (2016) Complexity of vitamin E metabolism. World J Biol Chem 7:14–43.  https://doi.org/10.4331/wjbc.v7.i1.14 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Fairus S, Nor RM, Cheng HM, Sundram K (2006) Postprandial metabolic fate of tocotrienol-rich vitamin E differs significantly from that of α-tocopherol. Am J Clin Nutr 84:835–842CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Fairus S, Nor RM, Cheng HM, Sundram K (2012) Alpha-tocotrienol is the most abundant tocotrienol isomer circulated in plasma and lipoproteins after postprandial tocotrienol-rich vitamin E supplementation. Nutr J 11:5.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-11-5 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bhaskaragoud G, Rajath S, Mahendra VP et al (2016) Hypolipidemic mechanism of oryzanol components-ferulic acid and phytosterols. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 476:82–89.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2016.05.053 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Perez-Ternero C, Macià A, De Sotomayor MA et al (2017) Bioavailability of the ferulic acid-derived phenolic compounds of a rice bran enzymatic extract and their activity against superoxide production. Food Funct 8:2165–2174.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c7fo00243b CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Wilson TA, Nicolosi RJ, Woolfrey B, Kritchevsky D (2007) Rice bran oil and oryzanol reduce plasma lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and aortic cholesterol ester accumulation to a greater extent than ferulic acid in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. J Nutr Biochem 18:105–112.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2006.03.006 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Zhao Z, Moghadasian MH (2008) Chemistry, natural sources, dietary intake and pharmacokinetic properties of ferulic acid: a review. Food Chem 109:691–702.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.02.039 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Pan Y, Cai L, He S, Zhang Z (2014) Pharmacokinetics study of ferulic acid in rats after oral administration of γ-oryzanol under combined use of Tween 80 by LC/MS/MS. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 18:143–150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Bourne L, Paganga G, Baxter D et al (2000) Absorption of ferulic acid from low-alcohol beer. Free Radic Res 32:273–280.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10715760000300281 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Bourne LC, Rice-Evans C (1998) Bioavailability of ferulic acid. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 253:222–227.  https://doi.org/10.1006/bbrc.1998.9681 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Mateo Anson N, Van den Berg R, Havenaar R et al (2009) Bioavailability of ferulic acid is determined by its bioaccessibility. J Cereal Sci 49:296–300.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2008.12.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Biological Chemistry and NutritionUniversity of HohenheimStuttgartGermany
  2. 2.Escuela de BiologíaInstituto Tecnológico de Costa RicaCartagoCosta Rica
  3. 3.Institute of Nutritional MedicineUniversity of HohenheimStuttgartGermany
  4. 4.FB Food GmbHVillingen-SchwenningenGermany

Personalised recommendations