Individual characteristics associated with changes in the contribution of plant foods to dietary intake in a French prospective cohort
Rebalancing the contribution of animal- and plant-based foods is needed to achieve sustainable diet. However, little is known concerning individual characteristics that may influence intake of plant-based foods and their changes over time. We aimed to assess changes in the contribution of plant-based foods to dietary intake over time and their association with individual characteristics.
The contribution of plant-based foods was assessed by percent energy intake provided by plant proteins in diet (PEIPP) and a score of adherence to a pro-vegetarian diet, using repeated 24-h records in 15,615 French adults participating in the NutriNet-Santé cohort study. Associations between baseline individual characteristics and changes in the two indicators over a 4–6-year follow-up were assessed using a linear mixed model.
At baseline, PEIPP and pro-vegetarian score were positively associated with age [β65+ = 0.80, 95% CI = (0.71, 0.88), β65+ = 3.30, 95% CI = (2.97, 3.64), respectively] and education [βpostgraduate = 0.23, 95% CI = (0.12, 0.34), βpostgraduate = 1.19, 95% CI = (0.75, 1.62)], while they were inversely associated with BMI class [βobesity = − 0.48, 95% CI = (0.56, 0.41), βobesity = − 2.31, 95% CI = (− 2.63, − 1.98)]. Men had higher PEIPP than women [β = 0.06, 95% CI = (0.01, 0.11)]. Pro-vegetarian score significantly increased over time [β = 0.23, 95% CI = (0.08, 0.37)]. The older the individual at baseline, the greater the decrease in the two indicators during follow-up. Pro-vegetarian score increased during follow-up for obese participants at baseline.
The contribution of plant-based foods was associated with several socio-demographic and economic characteristics at baseline, whereas change over time was related to age and weight status. Further analysis of individual obstacles and lever to consume plant-based foods is needed.
KeywordsPlant-based foods Plant proteins Dietary change Sustainable diet Longitudinal analysis Individual characteristics
- 95% CI
95% Confidence Interval
Analysis of Variance
Body Mass Index
Basal Metabolic Rate
Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults
Etude Nationale Nutrition Santé
Individual and National Consumption Survey 2
Percent Energy Intake Provided by Plant Proteins
World Health Organization
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.
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