Interesterified palm olein lowers postprandial glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide response in type 2 diabetes
We aim to investigate the postprandial effects of palm olein (PO) and chemically interesterified palm olein (IPO) with different proportions of palmitic acid at the sn-2 position using high oleic sunflower oil (HOS) as control fat on concentrations of gut hormones, glucose homeostasis, satiety, lipid and inflammatory parameters in type 2 diabetic (T2D) subjects.
Using a randomised double-blind crossover design, 21 (men = 6, women = 15) T2D subjects consumed test meals (3.65 MJ) consisting of a high fat muffin (containing 50 g test fats provided as PO, IPO or HOS) and a milkshake. Postprandial changes in gut hormones, glucose homeostasis, satiety, lipid and inflammatory parameters after meals were analysed. Some of the solid fractions of the IPO were removed and thus the fatty acid composition of the PO and IPO was not entirely equal (PO vs IPO: palmitate 39.8 vs 38.7; oleate 43.6 vs 45.1). PO, IPO and HOS contained 9.7, 38.9 and 0.2 g/100 g total fatty acids of palmitic acid at the sn-2 position, respectively. At 37 °C, IPO contained 4.2% SFC whereas PO and HOS were completely melted.
Our novel observation shows that the incremental area under curve (iAUC) 0–6 h of plasma GIP concentration was on average 16% lower following IPO meal compared with PO and HOS (P < 0.05) meals. Serum C-peptide concentrations exhibited a significant meal × gender interaction (P = 0.009). No differences between test meals were noted for other measurements.
This study shows no adverse effect of interesterification on hormones associated with glucose homeostasis notably GLP-1 in T2D subjects.
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01906359. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01906359
KeywordsGlucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide Gut hormones Glucose metabolism Interesterified palm olein Type 2 diabetes
The authors thank the Malaysian Palm Oil Board for providing research funding (grant number: A005/11), clinical research facility and laboratory personnel. The study was supported by Universiti Putra Malaysia and Selangor State Health Department. The authors acknowledged the contribution of family medicine specialists serving health clinics in Hulu Langat and Sepang districts for referring potential study volunteers to the research team.
KTT conceived and designed the experiment; SYM and KTT performed the experiments and analysed the data; OML, BHC, RI, SAB and NAJ contributed reagents and materials; SYM, KTT, OML and BHC contributed to the writing of the manuscript; OML provided technical expertise in test fat preparation; BHC, RI, SAB and NAJ provided technical expertise in subject recruitment and medical issues; RI, SAD and NAJ coordinated subject recruitment from health clinics.
KTT received research funds from Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) for this study. Grant number: A005/11. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
SYM was a postgraduate master student at Universiti Putra Malaysia and a recipient of Graduate Student Assistantship Scheme awarded by Malaysian Palm Oil Board. KTT is working at Malaysian Palm Oil Board. The companies providing the test fats were not involved in the research and the preparation of the manuscript. OML, BHC, RI, SAB and NAJ have declared no conflicts of interest.
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