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Interesterified palm olein lowers postprandial glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide response in type 2 diabetes

  • Shuen-Yeing Mo
  • Oi-Ming Lai
  • Boon-How Chew
  • Ruhaini Ismail
  • Sallehudin Abu Bakar
  • Norli Abdul Jabbar
  • Kim-Tiu TengEmail author
Original Contribution

Abstract

Purpose

We aim to investigate the postprandial effects of palm olein (PO) and chemically interesterified palm olein (IPO) with different proportions of palmitic acid at the sn-2 position using high oleic sunflower oil (HOS) as control fat on concentrations of gut hormones, glucose homeostasis, satiety, lipid and inflammatory parameters in type 2 diabetic (T2D) subjects.

Methods

Using a randomised double-blind crossover design, 21 (men = 6, women = 15) T2D subjects consumed test meals (3.65 MJ) consisting of a high fat muffin (containing 50 g test fats provided as PO, IPO or HOS) and a milkshake. Postprandial changes in gut hormones, glucose homeostasis, satiety, lipid and inflammatory parameters after meals were analysed. Some of the solid fractions of the IPO were removed and thus the fatty acid composition of the PO and IPO was not entirely equal (PO vs IPO: palmitate 39.8 vs 38.7; oleate 43.6 vs 45.1). PO, IPO and HOS contained 9.7, 38.9 and 0.2 g/100 g total fatty acids of palmitic acid at the sn-2 position, respectively. At 37 °C, IPO contained 4.2% SFC whereas PO and HOS were completely melted.

Results

Our novel observation shows that the incremental area under curve (iAUC) 0–6 h of plasma GIP concentration was on average 16% lower following IPO meal compared with PO and HOS (P < 0.05) meals. Serum C-peptide concentrations exhibited a significant meal × gender interaction (P = 0.009). No differences between test meals were noted for other measurements.

Conclusions

This study shows no adverse effect of interesterification on hormones associated with glucose homeostasis notably GLP-1 in T2D subjects.

Trial registration

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01906359. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01906359

Keywords

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide Gut hormones Glucose metabolism Interesterified palm olein Type 2 diabetes 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the Malaysian Palm Oil Board for providing research funding (grant number: A005/11), clinical research facility and laboratory personnel. The study was supported by Universiti Putra Malaysia and Selangor State Health Department. The authors acknowledged the contribution of family medicine specialists serving health clinics in Hulu Langat and Sepang districts for referring potential study volunteers to the research team.

Author contributions

KTT conceived and designed the experiment; SYM and KTT performed the experiments and analysed the data; OML, BHC, RI, SAB and NAJ contributed reagents and materials; SYM, KTT, OML and BHC contributed to the writing of the manuscript; OML provided technical expertise in test fat preparation; BHC, RI, SAB and NAJ provided technical expertise in subject recruitment and medical issues; RI, SAD and NAJ coordinated subject recruitment from health clinics.

Funding

KTT received research funds from Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) for this study. Grant number: A005/11. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

SYM was a postgraduate master student at Universiti Putra Malaysia and a recipient of Graduate Student Assistantship Scheme awarded by Malaysian Palm Oil Board. KTT is working at Malaysian Palm Oil Board. The companies providing the test fats were not involved in the research and the preparation of the manuscript. OML, BHC, RI, SAB and NAJ have declared no conflicts of interest.

Supplementary material

394_2018_1738_MOESM1_ESM.docx (151 kb)
Fig. 6 a–d supplemental data: VAS ratings of subjects following high fat test meals containing 50 g test fats provided as PO (filled circle), IPO (filled triangle) and HOS (filled square). (5A) VAS on palatability of test meals (n = 20) analysed by one-way repeated measures ANOVA showing no significant difference between all test meals. Values were means with 95% CIs in parentheses. The data of one subject was not included for analysis due to documentation error; (5B) VAS on satiety after test meals (n = 20) analysed by non-parametric test showing no significant difference between all test meals. Values were means with 95% CI in parentheses. The data of one subject was not included for analysis due to documentation error; (5C) VAS hunger rating, time effect (P &#x003C; 0.000). (5D) The square-root transformed VAS desire to eat, time effect (P &#x003C; 0.000). Values presented were means with 95% CIs in parentheses. Abbreviations: ANOVA, analysis of variance; CI, confidence interval; HOS, high oleic sunflower oil; iAUC, incremental area under curve; IPO, chemically interesterified palm olein; PO, palm olein; VAS, visual analogue scale. Fig. 7 supplemental data: Lipemic responses of subjects following high fat test meals containing 50 g test fats provided as PO (filled circle), IPO (filled triangle) and HOS (filled square). n=21. (A) TAG, time × gender interaction (P = 0.049); (B) NEFA, time × gender interaction (P = 0.036). Values presented were means with 95% CIs in parentheses. Abbreviations: ANOVA, analysis of variance; CI, confidence interval; HOS, high oleic sunflower oil; iAUC, incremental area under curve; IPO, chemically interesterified palm olein; PO, palm olein; TAG, triacylglycerol; NEFA, non-esterified fatty acids (DOCX 151 KB)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Product Development and Advisory ServicesMalaysian Palm Oil BoardKajangMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Bioprocess Engineering, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular SciencesUniversiti Putra Malaysia, UPM SerdangSerdangMalaysia
  3. 3.Institute of BioscienceUniversiti Putra Malaysia, UPM SerdangSerdangMalaysia
  4. 4.Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health SciencesUniversiti Putra Malaysia, UPM SerdangSerdangMalaysia
  5. 5.Sepang District Health Office, Selangor State Health DepartmentSepangMalaysia
  6. 6.Hulu Langat District Health Office, Selangor State Health DepartmentKajangMalaysia
  7. 7.Non-communicable Diseases Unit, Selangor State Health DepartmentShah AlamMalaysia

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