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European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 57, Issue 5, pp 1999–2000 | Cite as

Response to letters to the editor regarding our paper “Early introduction of complementary foods and childhood overweight in breastfed and formula-fed infants in the Netherlands: the PIAMA birth cohort study”

  • Linda P. M. Pluymen
  • Alet H. Wijga
  • Ulrike Gehring
  • Gerard H. Koppelman
  • Henriëtte A. Smit
  • Lenie van Rossem
Letter to the Editor
  • 68 Downloads

Dear editor,

We thank Albakri & Watson and Erliana for their responses to our paper, in which they propose additional potential confounders in the association of early introduction of complementary foods (CF) and higher risk of overweight during childhood.

Albakri and Watson state that our study could be strengthened by adjustment for physical activity, parental BMI and energy intake during childhood. In our view, these factors may play different roles in the association of early introduction of CF with childhood overweight:

Energy intake and physical activity are associated with overweight development. These factors as well as parental BMI, could be considered as indicators of family lifestyle and could thus confound the association between the timing of CF introduction and development of overweight if family lifestyle influences the timing of CF introduction. In our analyses, we adjusted for a number of important indicators of familial lifestyle, namely maternal educational level,...

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Linda Pluymen, Alet Wijga, Ulrike Gehring, Gerard Koppelman, Henriëtte Smit, Lenie van Rossem. On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

References

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    Brown A, Rowan H (2016) Maternal and infant factors associated with reasons for introducing solid foods. Matern Child Nutr 12:500–515CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
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    Ong KK, Emmett PM, Noble S, Ness A, Dunger DB (2006) Dietary energy intake at the age of 4 months predicts postnatal weight gain and childhood body mass index. Pediatrics 117(3):e503-e508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Melnik CB (2014) The potential mechanistic link between allergy and obesity development and infant formula feeding. Allergy asthma clinical Immunol J 10(37):1–10Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Linda P. M. Pluymen
    • 1
  • Alet H. Wijga
    • 2
  • Ulrike Gehring
    • 3
  • Gerard H. Koppelman
    • 4
  • Henriëtte A. Smit
    • 1
  • Lenie van Rossem
    • 1
  1. 1.Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary CareUniversity Medical Center UtrechtUtrechtThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Center for Nutrition, Prevention, and Health ServicesNational Institute for Public Health and the EnvironmentBilthovenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Division of Environmental EpidemiologyUtrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Department of Pediatric Pulmonology and Pediatric Allergology, UMCG, GRIAC Research Institute, GroningenUniversity of Groningen, Beatrix Children’s HospitalUtrechtThe Netherlands

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