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Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids mediate the inverse association of stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity with the risk of fatty liver in dyslipidaemic individuals

  • Antonio J. Amor
  • Montserrat Cofán
  • Rocío Mateo-Gallego
  • Ana Cenarro
  • Fernando Civeira
  • Emilio Ortega
  • Emilio Ros
  • Aleix Sala-VilaEmail author
Original Contribution

Abstract

Purpose

The activity of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) is increased in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) inhibit SCD1, but clinical studies on whether all dietary PUFA species are equal in SCD1 inhibition are scarce. Serum phospholipids are an objective proxy of dietary intake of plant-derived PUFA (C18:2n-6, C18:3n-3) and marine-derived PUFA (C20:5n-3, C22:6n-3). In 355 participants with primary dyslipidemia, we cross-sectionally investigated whether the presumed association between surrogate markers of NAFLD and SCD1 activity is mediated by intake of PUFA, and, if it is, what PUFA species are relevant in this regard.

Methods

We determined the fatty acid profile of serum phospholipids by gas chromatography, and used the ratio C16:1n-7/C16:0 as a marker of SCD1 activity. NAFLD was diagnosed by values ≥ 60 in the fatty liver index (FLI), a surrogate recently validated against ultrasonography.

Results

FLI ≥ 60 was detected in 37.5% (n = 133) of study participants. In a multivariate model, SCD1 activity showed an expected significant association with the risk of NAFLD, with odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval) of 1.44 (1.04–2.01) for each 0.01 increase. In a model further allowing the stepwise inclusion of plant-derived PUFA, marine-derived PUFA, and total PUFA (vegetable + marine), total PUFA replaced SCD1 activity as a significant (inverse) association of NAFLD, with OR 0.89 (0.81–0.99).

Conclusions

Total PUFA, regardless of their origin, mediates the relationship between SCD1 activity and NAFLD. This provides a new insight in the protective effects of PUFA against NAFLD, heretofore mostly focussed on PUFA species from marine origin.

Keywords

Stearoyl-CoA desaturase Alpha-linolenic acid Docosahexaenoic acid Eicosapentaenoic acid Linolenic acid Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease 

Abbreviations

DHA

Docosahexaenoic acid

EPA

Eicosapentaenoic acid

FLI

Fatty liver índex

NAFLD

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

PC

Phosphatidylcholine

PUFA

Polyunsaturated fatty acids

SCD1

Stearoyl-CoA desaturase

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by grants FIS PI06/0365 and CIBERCV from the Spanish Health Ministry and Fundació Privada Catalana de Nutrició i Lípids, Barcelona, Spain. AS-V holds a Miguel Servet fellowship from the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness through the Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Spain (CP12/03299). Emili Corbella provided expert assistance with statistical analyses. CIBEROBN and CIBERCV are initiatives of Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

None of the authors had a personal or financial conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Antonio J. Amor
    • 1
    • 2
  • Montserrat Cofán
    • 1
    • 2
  • Rocío Mateo-Gallego
    • 3
  • Ana Cenarro
    • 3
  • Fernando Civeira
    • 3
  • Emilio Ortega
    • 1
    • 2
  • Emilio Ros
    • 1
    • 2
  • Aleix Sala-Vila
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Lipid Clinic, Endocrinology and Nutrition Service, Hospital ClínicInstitut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi Sunyer (IDIBAPS)BarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Ciber Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERobn)Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII)MadridSpain
  3. 3.Lipid Clinic and Molecular Research Laboratory, Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet, IIS AragónUniversidad de Zaragoza, CIBERCVZaragozaSpain

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