Burden and trend of diet-related non-communicable diseases in Australia and comparison with 34 OECD countries, 1990–2015: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015
- 652 Downloads
Diet is a major determining factor for many non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs). However, evidence on diet-related NCD burden remains limited. We assessed the trends in diet-related NCDs in Australia from 1990 to 2015 and compared the results with other countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
We used data and methods from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2015 study to estimate the NCD mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) attributable to 14 dietary risk factors in Australia and 34 OECD nations. Countries were further ranked from the lowest (first) to highest (35th) burden using an age-standardized population attributable fraction (PAF).
In 2015, the estimated number of deaths attributable to dietary risks was 29,414 deaths [95% uncertainty interval (UI) 24,697 − 34,058 or 19.7% of NCD deaths] and 443,385 DALYs (95% UI 377,680–511,388 or 9.5% of NCD DALYs) in Australia. Young (25–49 years) and middle-age (50–69 years) male adults had a higher PAF of diet-related NCD deaths and DALYs than their female counterparts. Diets low in fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds and whole grains, but high in sodium, were the major contributors to both NCD deaths and DALYs. Overall, 42.3% of cardiovascular deaths were attributable to dietary risk factors. The age-standardized PAF of diet-related NCD mortality and DALYs decreased over the study period by 28.2% (from 27.0% in 1990 to 19.4% in 2015) and 41.0% (from 14.3% in 1990 to 8.4% in 2015), respectively. In 2015, Australia ranked 12th of 35 examined countries in diet-related mortality. A small improvement of rank was recorded compared to the previous 25 years.
Despite a reduction in diet-related NCD burden over 25 years, dietary risks are still the major contributors to a high burden of NCDs in Australia. Interventions targeting NCDs should focus on dietary behaviours of individuals and population groups.
KeywordsDietary risk factors Non-communicable diseases Burden of disease Australia OECD countries
We are grateful to The Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation for availing the data. We appreciate Assistant Professor Ashkan Afshin for his guidance in the early stage of manuscript preparation. YAM is thankful for the support provided by the Australian Government Research Training Program Scholarship. AR is supported by an Australian Research Council Future Fellowship (FT110100345). BdC is supported by National Heart Foundation Future Leader Fellowship (100864). EB is a recipient of the Monash Graduate and Monash International Postgraduate Scholarships.
No funding was received for this specific study. GBD 2015 was funded by Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare they have no competing interests. The authors are solely responsible for the views expressed in this article, and they do not necessarily represent the views, decisions, or policies of their institutions.
Not applicable because the manuscript does not include details, images, or videos relating to individual participants.
Ethics and consent
- 5.World Health Organization (2016) United Nations decades of action on nutrition. World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/nutrition/decade-of-action/en/. Accessed 4 Jan 2017
- 7.Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2016) Australian Burden of Disease Study: impact and causes of illness and death in Australia 2011. Australian Burden of Disease Study series no. 3. BOD 4. AIHW, CanberraGoogle Scholar
- 8.Forouzanfar MH, Afshin A, Alexander LT, Anderson HR, Bhutta ZA et al (2016) Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Lancet 388:1659–1724. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31679-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 9.Melaku YA, Temesgen AM, Deribew A, Tessema GA, Deribe K et al (2016) The impact of dietary risk factors on the burden of non-communicable diseases in Ethiopia: findings from the Global Burden of Disease study 2013. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 13:122. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-016-0447-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 10.World Cancer Research Fund / American Institute for Cancer Research (2011) Continuous update project report. Food, nutrition, physical activity, and the prevention of colorectal cancer. WCRF International, LondonGoogle Scholar
- 13.Wang H, Naghavi M, Allen C, Barber RM, Bhutta ZA et al (2016) Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Lancet 388:1459–1544. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31012-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 14.Vos T, Allen C, Arora M, Barber RM, Bhutta ZA et al (2016) Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Lancet 388:1545–1602. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31678-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 15.Kassebaum NJ, Arora M, Barber RM, Bhutta ZA, Brown J et al (2016) Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 315 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE), 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Lancet 388:1603–1658. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31460-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 16.Naghavi M, Wang H, Lozano R, Davis A, Liang X et al (2015) Global, regional, and national age–sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet 385:117–171. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 17.[Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) (2016) GBD Compare. Seattle, WA: IHME, University of Washington, 2016. http://vizhub.healthdata.org/gbd-compare. Accessed 1 Mar 2016
- 18.World Health Organization (2009) Global health risk: mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- 20.Smith-Spangler CM, Juusola JL, Enns EA, Owens DK, Garber AM (2010) Population strategies to decrease sodium intake and the burden of cardiovascular disease—a cost-effectiveness analysis. Ann Intern Med 152:481–487. https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-152-8-201004200-00212 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 22.Forouzanfar MH, Alexander L, Anderson HR, Bachman VF, Biryukov S et al (2015) Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet 386:2287–2323. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00128-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 31.Australian Dietary Guidelines (2013) Canberra: National Health and Medical Research Council. http://www.eatforhealth.gov.au. Accessed 23 Oct 2016
- 32.World Health Organization (WHO) (2003) Diet, nutrition, and the prevention of chronic diseases. WHO technical report series no. 916. WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- 35.Australian Bureau of Statistics (2012) Australian Health Survey: Updated Results, 2011–12. Daily intake of fruit and vegetables. http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/C549D4433F6B74D7CA257B8200179569?opendocument. Accessed 13 May 2016
- 39.Afshin A, Penalvo J, Del Gobbo L, Kashaf M, Micha R et al (2015) CVD prevention through policy: a review of mass media, food/menu labeling, taxation/subsidies, built environment, school procurement, worksite wellness, and marketing standards to improve diet. Curr Cardiol Rep 17:98. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11886-015-0658-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 41.Australian Bureau of Statistics (2012): The role of beverages in the Australian diet: a secondary analysis of the Australian Health Survey. National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, 2011–12. ABS, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
- 44.Anand SS, Hawkes C, de Souza RJ, Mente A, Dehghan M et al (2015) Food consumption and its impact on cardiovascular disease: importance of solutions focused on the globalized food system—a report from the workshop convened by the world heart federation. J Am Coll Cardiol 66:1590–1614. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2015.07.050 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 47.Imamura F, O’Connor L, Ye Z, Mursu J, Hayashino Y et al (2016) Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice and incidence of type 2 diabetes: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimation of population attributable fraction. Br J Sports Med 50:496–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 48.Colchero MA, Popkin BM, Rivera JA, Ng SW (2016) Beverage purchases from stores in Mexico under the excise tax on sugar sweetened beverages: observational study. Br Med J 352Google Scholar
- 58.Afshin A, Babalola D, McLean M, Yu Z, Ma W et al (2016) Information technology and lifestyle: a systematic evaluation of internet and mobile interventions for improving diet, physical activity, obesity, tobacco, and alcohol use. J Am Heart Assoc. https://doi.org/10.1161/jaha.115.003058 Google Scholar
- 59.Kerr DA, Harray AJ, Pollard CM, Dhaliwal SS, Delp EJ et al (2016) The connecting health and technology study: a 6-month randomized controlled trial to improve nutrition behaviours using a mobile food record and text messaging support in young adults. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 13:52. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-016-0376-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar