Coffee consumption and risk of hypertension: a dose–response meta-analysis of prospective studies
- 794 Downloads
Recently, a large prospective study provided additional information concerning the debated possible association between habitual coffee consumption and risk of hypertension (HPT). Therefore, we updated the state of knowledge on this issue by carrying out a comprehensive new systematic review of the literature and a meta-analysis of the available relevant studies.
We performed a systematic search for prospective studies on general population, published without language restrictions (1966–August 2017). A random-effects dose–response meta-analysis was conducted to combine study specific relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals. Potential non-linear relation was investigated using restricted cubic splines.
Four studies (196,256 participants, 41,184 diagnosis of HPT) met the inclusion criteria. Coffee intake was assessed by dietary questionnaire. Dose–response meta-analysis showed a non-linear relationship between coffee consumption and risk of HPT (p for non-linearity < 0.001). Whereas the habitual drinking of one or two cups of coffee per day, compared with non-drinking, was not associated with risk of HPT, a significantly protective effect of coffee consumption was found starting from the consumption of three cups of coffee per day (RR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.94 to 0.99), and was confirmed for greater consumption.
The results of this analysis indicate that habitual moderate coffee intake is not associated with higher risk of HPT in the general population and that in fact a non-linear inverse dose–response relationship occurs between coffee consumption and risk of HPT.
KeywordsCoffee Hypertension Blood pressure Dose–response meta-analysis
LD conceived the study aims and design, contributed to the systematic review and to the data extraction, performed the analysis, interpreted the results, and drafted the manuscript. ELF contributed to the systematic review and to the data extraction, contributed to interpretation of results, and drafted the manuscript. LS contributed to the preparation of revised version of the manuscript. FG contributed to the systematic review and to interpretation of results, and drafted the manuscript. PS contributed to the systematic review, interpretation of results and drafted the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
- 1.International Coffee Organization 2017. http://www.ico.org/prices/new-consumption-table.pdf. Accessed Sept 19, 2017
- 2.USA NCA (2012) National coffee drinking trends. National Coffee Association USA, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 3.http://www.euromonitor.com. Accessed Sept 19, 2017
- 9.World Health Organization. A global brief on hypertension: silent killer, global public health crisis. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/79059/WHO_DCO_WHD_2013.2_eng.pdf. Accessed 19 Sept 2017
- 22.Uiterwaal CS, Verschuren WM, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Ocké M, Geleijnse JM, Boshuizen HC, Peeters PH, Feskens EJ, Grobbee DE (2007) Coffee intake and incidence of hypertension. Am J Clin Nutr 85(3):718 – 23Google Scholar
- 23.Liberati A, Altman DG, Tetzlaff J, Mulrow C, Gøtzsche PC, Ioannidis JP, Clarke M, Devereaux PJ, Kleijnen J, Moher D (2009) The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate healthcare interventions: explanation and elaboration. BMJ 339:b2700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 24.Wells GA, Shea B, O’Connell D, Peterson J, Welch V, Losos M, Tugwell P. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for assessing the quality of nonrandomised studies in meta-analyses. http://www.ohri.ca/programs/clinical_epidemiology/oxford.asp. Accesed 11 July 2016
- 27.Desquilbet L, Mariotti F (2010) Dose-response analyses using restricted cubic spline functions in public health research. Stat Med 29(9):1037–1057Google Scholar
- 29.Sterne JA, Sutton AJ, Ioannidis JP, Terrin N, Jones DR, Lau J, Carpenter J, Rücker G, Harbord RM, Schmid CH, Tetzlaff J, Deeks JJ, Peters J, Macaskill P, Schwarzer G, Duval S, Altman DG, Moher D, Higgins JP (2011) Recommendations for examining and interpreting funnel plot asymmetry in meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials. BMJ 342:d4002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 39.Godos J, Pluchinotta FR, Marventano S, Buscemi S, Li Volti G, Galvano F, Grosso G (2014) Coffee components and cardiovascular risk: beneficial and detrimental effects. Int J Food Sci Nutr 21:1–12Google Scholar
- 43.Wilcox CS, Welch WJ, Schreiner GF, Belardinelli L (1999) Natriuretic and diuretic actions of a highly selective adenosine A1 receptor antagonist. J Am Soc Nephrol 10:714–720Google Scholar
- 55.Kiyohara C, Kono S, Honjo S, Todoroki I, Sakurai Y, Nishiwaki M, Hamada H, Nishikawa H, Koga H, Ogawa S, Nakagawa K (1999) Inverse association between coffee drinking and serum uric acid concentrations in middle-aged Japanese males. Br J Nutr 82:125–130Google Scholar
- 64.Zhou J, Zhou S, Zeng S (2011) Experimental diabetes treated with trigonelline: effect on b-cell, Fundam. Clin Pharmacol 27:279–287Google Scholar
- 66.Ghule AE, Jadhav SS, Bodhankar SL (2012) Trigonelline ameliorates diabetic hypertensive nephropathy by suppression of oxidative stress in kidney and reduction in renal cell apoptosis and fibrosis in streptozotocin induced neonatal diabetic (nSTZ) rats. Int Immunopharmacol 14(4):740–748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 72.Zheng G, Sayam K, Okubo T, Juneja LR, Oguni I (2004) Anti-obesity effects of three major components of green tea, catechins, caffeine and theanine, in mice. In Vivo 18:55–62Google Scholar
- 77.Guessous I, Dobrinas M, Kutalik Z, Pruijm M, Ehret G, Maillard M, Bergmann S, Beckmann JS, Cusi D, Rizzi F, Cappuccio F, Cornuz J, Paccaud F, Mooser V, Gaspoz JM, Waeber G, Burnier M, Vollenweider P, Eap CB, Bochud M (2012) Caffeine intake and CYP1A2 variants associated with high caffeine intake protect non-smokers from hypertension. Hum Mol Genet 21:3283–3292CrossRefGoogle Scholar