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Zinc deficiency as a mediator of toxic effects of alcohol abuse

  • Anatoly V. Skalny
  • Margarita G. Skalnaya
  • Andrei R. Grabeklis
  • Anastasia A. Skalnaya
  • Alexey A. Tinkov
Review

Abstract

Objective

To review data on the role of ethanol-induced alteration of Zn homeostasis in mediation of adverse effects of alcohol abuse.

Methods

The scholarly published articles on the association between Zn metabolism and alcohol-associated disorders (liver, brain, lung, gut dysfunction, and fetal alcohol syndrome) have been reviewed.

Results

It is demonstrated that alcohol-induced modulation of zinc transporters results in decreased Zn levels in lungs, liver, gut, and brain. Zn deficiency in the gut results in increased gut permeability, ultimately leading to endotoxemia and systemic inflammation. Similarly, Zn deficiency in lung epithelia and alveolar macrophages decreases lung barrier function resulting in respiratory distress syndrome. In turn, increased endotoxemia significantly contributes to proinflammatory state in alcoholic liver disease. Finally, impaired gut and liver functions may play a significant role in alcoholic brain damage, being associated with both increased proinflammatory signaling and accumulation of neurotoxic metabolites. It is also hypothesized that ethanol-induced Zn deficiency may interfere with neurotransmission. Similar changes may take place in the fetus as a result of impaired placental zinc transfer, maternal zinc deficiency, or maternal Zn sequestration, resulting in fetal alcoholic syndrome. Therefore, alcoholic Zn deficiency not only mediates the adverse effects of ethanol exposure, but also provides an additional link between different alcohol-induced disorders.

Conclusions

Generally, current findings suggest that assessment of Zn status could be used as a diagnostic marker of metabolic disturbances in alcohol abuse, whereas modulation of Zn metabolism may be a potential tool in the treatment of alcohol-associated disorders.

Keywords

Ethanol Zinc Gut permeability Inflammation Endotoxemia 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The current investigation is supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research within Project No. 15-04-08621.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anatoly V. Skalny
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Margarita G. Skalnaya
    • 2
  • Andrei R. Grabeklis
    • 1
    • 2
  • Anastasia A. Skalnaya
    • 5
  • Alexey A. Tinkov
    • 1
    • 2
    • 6
  1. 1.Yaroslavl State UniversityYaroslavlRussia
  2. 2.Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University)MoscowRussian Federation
  3. 3.Orenburg State UniversityOrenburgRussia
  4. 4.Trace Element Institute for UNESCOLyonFrance
  5. 5.Lomonosov Moscow State UniversityMoscowRussia
  6. 6.Institute of Cellular and Intracellular SymbiosisRussian Academy of SciencesOrenburgRussia

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