Dietary iron intake and availability are related to maternal education level in overweight/obese adolescents
- 230 Downloads
To compare intakes of dietary iron and enhancers and inhibitors of iron absorption between overweight/obese (OW/OB) adolescents and their normal weight (NW) peers, and between parental education levels stratified by weight status.
This was a comparative cross-sectional study of adolescents (n 121 OW/OB and n 102 NW) aged 12–14 years, attending a secondary school in Nonthaburi province, Thailand. Socio-demographic data were obtained from participants’ parents using a questionnaire. Participants recorded their intakes for 3 non-consecutive days, using a prospective food record.
Compared with NW adolescents, OW/OB adolescents consumed more total protein and animal protein after adjustment for energy intake (both p = 0.047). OW/OB adolescents whose mothers were less educated consumed more total iron and available iron after adjustment for energy intake, compared with their OW/OB peers whose mothers were more educated (p = 0.045 and p = 0.040). NW adolescents with more highly educated mothers had higher absolute and energy-adjusted fibre intakes (both p = 0.047). However, NW adolescents of mothers with a high–intermediate level of education consumed less calcium, after adjustment for energy intake (p = 0.028).
OW/OB adolescents with less educated mothers had higher energy-adjusted intakes of iron and available iron. Dietary differences in OW/OB adolescents relative to maternal education, and other socioeconomic indicators, should be explored in a nationally representative data set.
KeywordsIron Enhancer Inhibitor Adolescent Overweight/obese Parental education
We thank the students and staff of Triamudomsakkapatanakran Nonthaburi School for their patience and kind cooperation. We also thank Kesorn Kamlanghan, Laddawan Chalajit, Benjaporn Pudsa, Vorathon Pomyen, Nittaya Boonnumma, Prodpran Tasiri, Sirada Klinchuen, Poonsiri Rittiron, Pachsiree Lhaothong, Arporn Thummanitayakul, Pattraporn Somsri. and Kannika Tangmanjitjaroen for assisting with data collection and entry.
CH and WS formulated the research questions. CH designed the study, with contributions from WS and MT. CT was the primary data collector. CT and WS developed the food portion size booklet and performed dietary data analysis. CT and MT carried out statistical analysis. CH wrote the manuscript, with contributions from CT. WS and MT provided comments on the content of the manuscript, which contributed to the revision of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
This study was conducted according to the guidelines in the Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the Ethical Review Committee for Human Research, Faculty of Public Health, Mahidol University.
Conflict of interest
The authors have no conflict of interest.
This study was funded by the China Medical Board of New York (CMB), Faculty of Public Health, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand (Grant number 03/2556). The funder did not contribute to the study design, conduct of the study, analysis of samples or data, interpretation of findings, or the preparation, review, and approval of the manuscript.
Written informed consent was obtained from all participants.
- 17.World Bank (2015) Thailand overview. http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/thailand/overview. Accessed 21 Mar 2016
- 18.World Bank (2009) Thailand social monitor: towards a competitive higher education system in a global economy http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EASTASIAPACIFICEXT/Resources/226300-1279680449418/HigherEd_ThailandSocialMonitor.pdf. Accessed 21 Mar 2016
- 23.Bureau of Nutrition, Department of Health, Ministry of Public Health (2003) Dietary reference intake for Thais 2003, 3rd edn. Express Transportation Organization Publishers, BangkokGoogle Scholar
- 24.Bureau of Nutrition (2015) Control and prevention of iron deficiency anaemia. http://nutrition.anamai.moph.go.th/temp/main/view.php?group=1&id=617. Accessed 26 Mar 2016
- 27.World Health Organization (2015) WHO BMI-for-age (5–19 years). http://www.who.int/growthref/who2007_bmi_for_age/en/. Accessed 5 Aug 2015
- 28.National Health Examination Survey Office, Health Systems Research Institute (2013) Illustration used with the Thailand National Health Examination Survey V questionnaires. The Graphico System Ltd., NonthaburiGoogle Scholar
- 29.National Health Examination Survey Office, Health System Research Institute (2010) Report of the food consumption survey among the Thai population: the Thailand National Health Examination Survey IV, 2008–2009. The Graphico System Ltd., NonthaburiGoogle Scholar
- 30.Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University (2013) Nutrient calculation computer software INMUCAL-Nutrients V3 database NB1. Nakhon Pathom, ThailandGoogle Scholar
- 38.Department of Health, Ministry of Public Health (1996) The Fourth National Nutrition Survey of Thailand, 1995. Ministry of Public Health, BangkokGoogle Scholar
- 50.Nutrition Division, Department of Health, Ministry of Public Health (2001) Manual: nutrition flag healthy eating for Thais. http://www.fao.org/3/a-as979e.pdf. Accessed 21 Mar 2016
- 52.Nutrition Division, Department of Health, Ministry of Public Health (2007) Food-based dietary guidelines for Thais. http://www.fao.org/3/a-as887e.pdf. Accessed 21 Mar 2016