Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) extract treatment improves triglyceridemia, liver cholesterol, liver steatosis, oxidative damage and corticosteronemia in rats rendered obese by high fat diet
Obese individuals have higher production of reactive oxygen species, which leads to oxidative damage. We hypothesize that cranberry extract (CE) can improve this dysfunction in HFD-induced obesity in rats since it has an important antioxidant activity. Here, we evaluated the effects of CE in food intake, adiposity, biochemical and hormonal parameters, lipogenic and adipogenic factors, hepatic morphology and oxidative balance in a HFD model.
At postnatal day 120 (PN120), male Wistar rats were assigned into two groups: (1) SD (n = 36) fed with a standard diet and (2) HFD (n = 36), fed with a diet containing 44.5% (35.2% from lard) energy from fat. At PN150, 12 animals from SD and HFD groups were killed while the others were subdivided into four groups (n = 12/group): animals that received 200 mg/kg cranberry extract (SD CE, HFD CE) gavage/daily/30 days or water (SD, HFD). At PN180, animals were killed.
HFD group showed higher body mass and visceral fat, hypercorticosteronemia, higher liver glucocorticoid sensitivity, cholesterol and triglyceride contents and microsteatosis. Also, HFD group had higher lipid peroxidation (plasma and tissues) and higher protein carbonylation (liver and adipose tissue) compared to SD group. HFD CE group showed lower body mass gain, hypotrygliceridemia, hypocorticosteronemia, and lower hepatic cholesterol and fatty acid synthase contents. HFD CE group displayed lower lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation (liver and adipose tissue) and accumulation of liver fat compared to HFD group.
Although adiposity was not completely reversed, cranberry extract improved the metabolic profile and reduced oxidative damage and steatosis in HFD-fed rats, which suggests that it can help manage obesity-related disorders.
KeywordsObesity High fat diet Cranberry extract Corticosterone Lipids Oxidative stress
The authors are grateful to Mr. Ulisses Siqueira and Miss Monica Moura for their technical assistance.
Concept and design: TCP, EGM, MSF, PCL. Animal treatment, collection of samples and measurements: TCP, PNS, DSG, DND, XXA, VSTR. Extract analyses: GRS, AJRS. Analysis and interpretation of data: TCP, EGM, EO, PNS, MSF, ACM, PCL. Drafting and/or revising the article critically for important intellectual content: TCP, EGM, EO, ACM, PCL. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Research was supported by the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq), the State of Rio de Janeiro Carlos Chagas Filho Research Foundation (FAPERJ) and Coordination for the Enhancement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interest.
- 2.Sikaris KA (2004) The clinical biochemistry of obesity. Clin Biochem Rev 25:165–181Google Scholar
- 10.Denis MC, Desjardins Y, Furtos A, Marcil V, Dudonné S, Montoudis A, Garofalo C, Delvin E, Marette A, Levy E (2015) Prevention of oxidative stress, inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction in the intestine by different cranberry phenolic fractions. Clin Sci (Lond) 128:197–212. doi: 10.1042/CS20140210 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 11.Anhê FF, Roy D, Pilon G, Dudonné S, Matamoros S, Varin TV, Garofalo C, Moine Q, Desjardins Y, Levy E, Marette A (2014) A polyphenol-rich cranberry extract protects from diet induced obesity, insulin resistance and intestinal inflammation in association with increased Akkermansia spp. population in the gut microbiota of mice. Gut 64:872–883. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2014-307142 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 12.Boušová I, Bártíková H, Matoušková P, Lněničková K, Zappe L, Valentová K, Szotáková B, Martin J, Skálová L (2015) Cranberry extract–enriched diets increase NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase and catalase activities in obese but not in nonobese mice. Nutr Res. 35:901–909. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2015.08.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 13.Lee J, Durst RW, Wrolstad RE (2005) Determination of total monomeric anthocyanin pigment content of fruit juices, beverages, natural colorants, and wines by the pH differential method: collaborative study. J AOAC Int 88:1269–1278Google Scholar
- 14.Singleton VL, Rossi JA (1965) Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. Am J Enol Vitic 16:144–158Google Scholar
- 16.Figueiredo MS, de Moura EG, Lisboa PC, Troina AA, Trevenzoli IH, Oliveira E, Boaventura GT, da Fonseca Passos MC (2009) Flaxseed supplementation of rats during lactation changes the adiposity and glucose homeostasis of their offspring. Life Sci 85:9–10. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2009.06.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 20.Conceição EPS, Franco JG, Oliveira O, Resende AC, Amaral TA, Peixoto-Silva N, Passos MC, Moura EG, Lisboa PC (2013) Oxidative stress programming in rat model of postnatal early overnutrition—role of insulin resistance. J Nutr Biochem 24:81–87. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2012.02.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 22.Bannister JV, Calabrese L (1987) Assays for superoxide dismutase. Methods Biochem Anal 32:279–312Google Scholar
- 25.Brown PN, Shipley PR (2011) Determination of anthocyanins in cranberry fruit and cranberry fruit products by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection: single-laboratory validation. J AOAC Int 94:459–466Google Scholar
- 32.Nardi GM, Farias Januario AG, Freire CG, Megiolaro F, Schneider K, Perazzoli MR, Do Nascimento SR, Gon AC, Mariano LN, Wagner G, Niero R, Locatelli C (2016) Anti-inflammatory activity of berry fruits in mice model of inflammation is based on oxidative stress modulation. Pharmacogn Res. doi: 10.4103/0974-8490.178642 Google Scholar
- 41.Mathison BD, Kimble LL, Kaspar KL, Khoo C, Chew BP (2014) Consumption of cranberry beverage improved endogenous antioxidant status and protected against bacteria adhesion in healthy humans: a randomized controlled trial. Nutr Res 4(5):420–427. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2014.03.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 42.Blumberg JB, Basu A, Krueger CG, Lila MA, Neto CC, Novotny JA, Reed JD, Rodriguez-Mateos A, Toner CD (2016) Impact of cranberries on gut microbiota and cardiometabolic health: proceedings of the cranberry health research conference 2015. Adv Nutr 7(4):759S–770S. doi: 10.3945/an.116.012583 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 43.Monk JM, Lepp D, Zhang CP, Wu W, Zarepoor L, Lu JT, Pauls KP, Tsao R, Wood GA, Robinson LE, Power KA (2016) Diets enriched with cranberry beans alter the microbiota and mitigate colitis severity and associated inflammation. J Nutr Biochem 28:129–139. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2015.10.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar