European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 57, Issue 4, pp 1381–1395 | Cite as

Antiproliferative activity of vitexin-2-O-xyloside and avenanthramides on CaCo-2 and HepG2 cancer cells occurs through apoptosis induction and reduction of pro-survival mechanisms

  • Emanuele Salvatore Scarpa
  • Elena Antonini
  • Francesco Palma
  • Michele Mari
  • Paolino NinfaliEmail author
Original Contribution



CaCo-2 colon cancer cells and HepG2 liver cancer cells represent two malignant cell lines, which show a high resistance to apoptosis induced by the conventional anticancer drugs. Vitexin-2-O-xyloside (XVX) and avenanthramides (AVNs) are naturally occurring dietary agents from Beta vulgaris var. cicla L. and Avena sativa L., respectively. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antiproliferative effects and the reduction of the pro-survival mechanisms exerted by XVX and AVNs, used individually and in combination, in CaCo-2 and HepG2 cancer cells.


XVX and AVNs were isolated by liquid chromatography and characterized by HPLC–PDA–MS. The XVX and AVN antiproliferative effects were evaluated through sulforhodamine B method, while their pro-apoptotic effects through caspase activity assays. RTqPCR was used to investigate the modulation of the pro-survival factors baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat-containing 5 (BIRC5), hypoxia inducible factor 1 A (HIF1A), and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA). Cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) was investigated by means of DCFH-DA assay, whereas chemical antioxidant capacity was evaluated by the ORAC method.


XVX and AVNs, both individually and in combination, inhibited the proliferation of CaCo-2 and HepG2 cancer cells, through activation of caspases 9, 8, and 3. XVX and AVNs downregulated the pro-survival genes BIRC5, HIF1A, and VEGFA. The CAA assay showed that AVNs exhibited strong antioxidant activity inside both CaCo-2 and HepG2 cells.


The antiproliferative activity of the XVX + AVNs mixture represents an innovative treatment, which is effective against two types of cancer cells characterized by high resistance to the conventional anticancer drugs.


Apoptosis Avenanthramides CaCo-2 colon cancer cells Cellular antioxidant activity HepG2 liver cancer cells Vitexin-2-O-xyloside 





Baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat-containing 5


Beta vulgaris var. cicla L.


Cellular antioxidant activity


2′,7′-Dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate


Hypoxia inducible factor 1 A


High pressure liquid chromatography


Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins


Mass spectrometry


N-Acetyl cysteine


Oxygen radical absorbance capacity


Photo diode array


Sulforhodamine B




Vascular endothelial growth factor





We acknowledge the financial support of University of Urbino “Carlo Bo”. The authors wish also to thank: Terra Bio Soc. Coop. (Urbino, Italy) and Suba Seeds Company S.p.A. (Longiano, Italy) for providing oat grains and Beta vulgaris var. cicla L. seeds, respectively. Timothy Bloom is acknowledged for assistance in the English language.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

394_2017_1418_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (151 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 150 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biomolecular SciencesUniversity of Urbino “Carlo Bo”UrbinoItaly

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