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European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 57, Issue 4, pp 1381–1395 | Cite as

Antiproliferative activity of vitexin-2-O-xyloside and avenanthramides on CaCo-2 and HepG2 cancer cells occurs through apoptosis induction and reduction of pro-survival mechanisms

  • Emanuele Salvatore Scarpa
  • Elena Antonini
  • Francesco Palma
  • Michele Mari
  • Paolino NinfaliEmail author
Original Contribution

Abstract

Purpose

CaCo-2 colon cancer cells and HepG2 liver cancer cells represent two malignant cell lines, which show a high resistance to apoptosis induced by the conventional anticancer drugs. Vitexin-2-O-xyloside (XVX) and avenanthramides (AVNs) are naturally occurring dietary agents from Beta vulgaris var. cicla L. and Avena sativa L., respectively. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antiproliferative effects and the reduction of the pro-survival mechanisms exerted by XVX and AVNs, used individually and in combination, in CaCo-2 and HepG2 cancer cells.

Methods

XVX and AVNs were isolated by liquid chromatography and characterized by HPLC–PDA–MS. The XVX and AVN antiproliferative effects were evaluated through sulforhodamine B method, while their pro-apoptotic effects through caspase activity assays. RTqPCR was used to investigate the modulation of the pro-survival factors baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat-containing 5 (BIRC5), hypoxia inducible factor 1 A (HIF1A), and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA). Cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) was investigated by means of DCFH-DA assay, whereas chemical antioxidant capacity was evaluated by the ORAC method.

Results

XVX and AVNs, both individually and in combination, inhibited the proliferation of CaCo-2 and HepG2 cancer cells, through activation of caspases 9, 8, and 3. XVX and AVNs downregulated the pro-survival genes BIRC5, HIF1A, and VEGFA. The CAA assay showed that AVNs exhibited strong antioxidant activity inside both CaCo-2 and HepG2 cells.

Conclusions

The antiproliferative activity of the XVX + AVNs mixture represents an innovative treatment, which is effective against two types of cancer cells characterized by high resistance to the conventional anticancer drugs.

Keywords

Apoptosis Avenanthramides CaCo-2 colon cancer cells Cellular antioxidant activity HepG2 liver cancer cells Vitexin-2-O-xyloside 

Abbreviations

AVNs

Avenanthramides

BIRC5

Baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat-containing 5

BVc

Beta vulgaris var. cicla L.

CAA

Cellular antioxidant activity

DCFH-DA

2′,7′-Dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate

HIF1A

Hypoxia inducible factor 1 A

HPLC

High pressure liquid chromatography

IAPs

Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins

MS

Mass spectrometry

NAC

N-Acetyl cysteine

ORAC

Oxygen radical absorbance capacity

PDA

Photo diode array

SRB

Sulforhodamine B

UV

Ultraviolet

VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factor

XVX

Vitexin-2-O-xyloside

Notes

Acknowledgements

We acknowledge the financial support of University of Urbino “Carlo Bo”. The authors wish also to thank: Terra Bio Soc. Coop. (Urbino, Italy) and Suba Seeds Company S.p.A. (Longiano, Italy) for providing oat grains and Beta vulgaris var. cicla L. seeds, respectively. Timothy Bloom is acknowledged for assistance in the English language.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

394_2017_1418_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (151 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 150 KB)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biomolecular SciencesUniversity of Urbino “Carlo Bo”UrbinoItaly

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