Replacement of glycaemic carbohydrates by inulin-type fructans from chicory (oligofructose, inulin) reduces the postprandial blood glucose and insulin response to foods: report of two double-blind, randomized, controlled trials
Inulin-type fructans are recognized as prebiotic dietary fibres and classified as non-digestible carbohydrates that do not contribute to glycaemia. The aim of the present studies was to investigate the glycaemic response (GR) and insulinaemic response (IR) to foods in which sucrose was partially replaced by inulin or oligofructose from chicory.
In a double-blind, randomized, controlled cross-over design, 40–42 healthy adults consumed a yogurt drink containing oligofructose or fruit jelly containing inulin and the respective full-sugar variants. Capillary blood glucose and insulin were measured in fasted participants and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after starting to drink/eat. For each test food, the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for glucose and insulin was calculated and the GR and IR determined.
Consumption of a yogurt drink with oligofructose which was 20% reduced in sugars significantly lowered the glycaemic response compared to the full-sugar reference (iAUC120min 31.9 and 37.3 mmol/L/min, respectively; p < 0.05). A fruit jelly made with inulin and containing 30% less sugars than the full-sugar variant likewise resulted in a significantly reduced blood glucose response (iAUC120min 53.7 and 63.7 mmol/L/min, respectively; p < 0.05). In both studies, the postprandial insulin response was lowered in parallel (p < 0.05). The reduction of postprandial glycaemia was positively correlated to the proportion of sugars replaced by inulin-type fructans (p < 0.001).
In conclusion, the studies confirmed that substitution of glycaemic sugars by inulin or oligofructose from chicory may be an effective strategy to reduce the postprandial blood glucose response to foods.
KeywordsGlycaemia Insulin Dietary fibre Prebiotics Sugar replacement
- 3.Cavalot F, Petrelli A, Traversa M et al (2006) Postprandial blood glucose is a stronger predictor of cardiovascular events than fasting blood glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus, especially in women: lessons from the San Luigi Gonzaga Diabetes Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91(3):813–819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 10.Meyer D (2007) Dietary fibre: components and functions: inulin for product development of low GI products to support weight management. Wageningen Academic Publishers, RoosendaalGoogle Scholar
- 14.European Commission–Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2016/854 authorising certain health claims made on foods, other than those referring to the reduction of disease risk and to children’s development and health and amending Regulation (EU) No 432/2012Google Scholar
- 15.ISO food products–determination of the glycaemic index (GI) and recommendation for food classification (26642:2010)Google Scholar
- 17.Hätönen KA, Simila E, Virtamo JR et al (2006) Methodologic considerations in the measurement of glycemic index: glycemic response to rye bread, oatmeal porridge, and mashed potatoe. Am J Clin Nutr 84(5):1055–1061Google Scholar
- 24.European Commission–Regulation (EC) No. 1924/2006 of the European Parliament and of the council of 20 December 2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foodsGoogle Scholar