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European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 57, Issue 2, pp 643–653 | Cite as

Meat intake, cooking methods and doneness and risk of colorectal tumours in the Spanish multicase-control study (MCC-Spain)

  • Jordi de Batlle
  • Esther Gracia-Lavedan
  • Dora RomagueraEmail author
  • Michelle Mendez
  • Gemma Castaño-Vinyals
  • Vicente Martín
  • Núria Aragonés
  • Inés Gómez-Acebo
  • Rocío Olmedo-Requena
  • José Juan Jimenez-Moleon
  • Marcela Guevara
  • Mikel Azpiri
  • Cristóbal Llorens-Ivorra
  • Guillermo Fernandez-Tardon
  • Jose Andrés Lorca
  • José María Huerta
  • Victor Moreno
  • Elena Boldo
  • Beatriz Pérez-Gómez
  • Jesús Castilla
  • Tania Fernández-Villa
  • Juan Pablo Barrio
  • Montserrat Andreu
  • Antoni Castells
  • Trinidad Dierssen
  • Jone M. Altzibar
  • Manolis Kogevinas
  • Marina Pollán
  • Pilar Amiano
Original Contribution

Abstract

Purpose

Although there is convincing evidence that red and processed meat intake increases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), the potential role of meat cooking practices has not been established yet and could partly explain the current heterogeneity of results among studies. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association between meat consumption and cooking practices and the risk of CRC in a population-based case–control study.

Methods

A total of 1671 CRC cases and 3095 controls recruited in Spain between September 2008 and December 2013 completing a food frequency questionnaire with a meat-specific module were included in the analyses. Odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by logistic regression models adjusted for known confounders.

Results

Total meat intake was associated with increased risk of CRC (OR T3–T1 1.41; 95% CI 1.19–1.67; p trend < 0.001), and similar associations were found for white, red and processed/cured/organ meat. Rare-cooked meat preference was associated with low risk of CRC in red meat (ORrare vs. medium 0.66; 95% CI 0.51–0.85) and total meat (ORrare vs. medium 0.56; 95% CI 0.37–0.86) consumers, these associations being stronger in women than in men. Griddle-grilled/barbecued meat was associated with an increased CRC risk (total meat: OR 1.45; 95% CI 1.13–1.87). Stewing (OR 1.25; 95% CI 1.04–1.51) and oven-baking (OR 1.18; 95% CI 1.00–1.40) were associated with increased CRC risk of white, but not red, meat.

Conclusions

Our study supports an association of white, red, processed/cured/organ and total meat intake with an increased risk of CRC. Moreover, our study showed that cooking practices can modulate such risk.

Keywords

Colorectal cancer Meat Cooking Epidemiology 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The study was partially funded by the “Accion Transversal del Cancer”, approved on the Spanish Ministry Council on 11 October 2007, by the Instituto de Salud Carlos III-FEDER (PI08/1770, PI08/0533, PI08/1359, PS09/00773, PS09/01286, PS09/01903, PS09/02078, PS09/01662, PI11/01403, PI11/01889, PI11/00226, PI11/01810, PI11/02213, PI12/00488, PI12/00265, PI12/01270, PI12/00715, PI12/00150), by the Fundación Marqués de Valdecilla (API 10/09), by the ICGC International Cancer Genome Consortium CLL, by the Junta de Castilla y León (LE22A10-2), by the Consejería de Salud of the Junta de Andalucía (PI-0571), by the Conselleria de Sanitat of the Generalitat Valenciana (AP 061/10), by the Recercaixa (2010ACUP 00310), by the Regional Government of the Basque Country, by European Commission grants FOOD-CT-2006-036224-HIWATE, by the Spanish Association Against Cancer (AECC) Scientific Foundation, by the Catalan Government DURSI grant 2009SGR1489. Jordi de Batlle acknowledges the support of the European Commission FP7 Marie Curie Actions-People, Cofunding of regional, national, and international programs (COFUND).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical standards

All participants signed an informed consent prior to their inclusion in the study. The study has been approved by the ethics committees of all participating centres and has therefore been performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments.

Supplementary material

394_2016_1350_MOESM1_ESM.docx (47 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 47 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jordi de Batlle
    • 1
  • Esther Gracia-Lavedan
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Dora Romaguera
    • 2
    • 5
    • 6
    Email author
  • Michelle Mendez
    • 7
    • 8
  • Gemma Castaño-Vinyals
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 9
  • Vicente Martín
    • 3
    • 10
  • Núria Aragonés
    • 3
    • 11
    • 12
    • 13
  • Inés Gómez-Acebo
    • 3
    • 14
  • Rocío Olmedo-Requena
    • 3
    • 15
    • 16
  • José Juan Jimenez-Moleon
    • 3
    • 15
    • 16
  • Marcela Guevara
    • 3
    • 17
  • Mikel Azpiri
    • 18
  • Cristóbal Llorens-Ivorra
    • 19
  • Guillermo Fernandez-Tardon
    • 3
    • 20
  • Jose Andrés Lorca
    • 21
  • José María Huerta
    • 22
  • Victor Moreno
    • 3
    • 23
    • 24
  • Elena Boldo
    • 3
    • 11
    • 12
    • 13
  • Beatriz Pérez-Gómez
    • 3
    • 11
    • 12
    • 13
  • Jesús Castilla
    • 3
    • 17
  • Tania Fernández-Villa
    • 10
  • Juan Pablo Barrio
    • 10
  • Montserrat Andreu
    • 25
  • Antoni Castells
    • 26
  • Trinidad Dierssen
    • 3
    • 14
  • Jone M. Altzibar
    • 3
    • 18
  • Manolis Kogevinas
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 9
  • Marina Pollán
    • 3
    • 11
    • 12
    • 13
  • Pilar Amiano
    • 3
    • 18
  1. 1.International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)LyonFrance
  2. 2.ISGlobal, Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL)BarcelonaSpain
  3. 3.CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP)MadridSpain
  4. 4.Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF)BarcelonaSpain
  5. 5.Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Palma (IdISPa)Hospital Universitario Son EspasesPalma de MallorcaSpain
  6. 6.CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y la Nutrición (CIBER-OBN)MadridSpain
  7. 7.Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public HealthUniversity of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA
  8. 8.Carolina Population Center and Lineberger Cancer CenterUniversity of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA
  9. 9.IMIM (Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute)BarcelonaSpain
  10. 10.Grupo de Investigación en Interacciones gen-ambiente y saludUniversidad de LeónLeónSpain
  11. 11.Instituto de Salud Carlos IIIMadridSpain
  12. 12.Cancer Epidemiology Unit, National Center for EpidemiologyInstituto de Salud Carlos IIIMadridSpain
  13. 13.Cancer Epidemiology Research Group, Oncology and Hematology AreaIIS Puerta de Hierro (IDIPHIM)Majadahonda, MadridSpain
  14. 14.Universidad de Cantabria – IDIVALSantanderSpain
  15. 15.Department of Preventive Medicine and Public HealthUniversity of GranadaGranadaSpain
  16. 16.Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria de Granada (ibs.GRANADA), Complejo Hospitales Universitarios de GranadaUniversidad de GranadaGranadaSpain
  17. 17.Instituto de Salud Pública de Navarra, IdiSNAPamplonaSpain
  18. 18.Public Health Division of Gipuzkoa, BioDonostia Research InstituteGovernment of the Basque CountrySan SebastianSpain
  19. 19.Centro de Salud Pública de Dénia, Consellería de Sanidad Universal y Salud Pública, Generalitat ValencianaFundación para el Fomento de la Investigación Sanitaria y Biomédica de la Comunidad Valenciana (FISABIO)ValènciaSpain
  20. 20.IUOPA, Preventive Medicine DepartmentUniversity of OviedoOviedoSpain
  21. 21.Centro de Investigación en Salud y Medio Ambiente (CYSMA)Universidad de HuelvaHuelvaSpain
  22. 22.Department of Epidemiology, Murcia Regional Health CouncilIMIB-ArrixacaMurciaSpain
  23. 23.IDIBELL-Catalan Institute of OncologyL’Hospitalet de LlobregatSpain
  24. 24.Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of BarcelonaL’Hospitalet del Llobregat, BarcelonaSpain
  25. 25.Department of Gastroenterology, Hospital del Mar, IMIM (Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute)Pompeu Fabra UniversityBarcelonaSpain
  26. 26.Gastroenterology Department, Hospital Clínic, IDIBAPS, CIBERehdUniversity of BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain

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