Meat intake, cooking methods and doneness and risk of colorectal tumours in the Spanish multicase-control study (MCC-Spain)
- 880 Downloads
Although there is convincing evidence that red and processed meat intake increases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), the potential role of meat cooking practices has not been established yet and could partly explain the current heterogeneity of results among studies. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association between meat consumption and cooking practices and the risk of CRC in a population-based case–control study.
A total of 1671 CRC cases and 3095 controls recruited in Spain between September 2008 and December 2013 completing a food frequency questionnaire with a meat-specific module were included in the analyses. Odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by logistic regression models adjusted for known confounders.
Total meat intake was associated with increased risk of CRC (OR T3–T1 1.41; 95% CI 1.19–1.67; p trend < 0.001), and similar associations were found for white, red and processed/cured/organ meat. Rare-cooked meat preference was associated with low risk of CRC in red meat (ORrare vs. medium 0.66; 95% CI 0.51–0.85) and total meat (ORrare vs. medium 0.56; 95% CI 0.37–0.86) consumers, these associations being stronger in women than in men. Griddle-grilled/barbecued meat was associated with an increased CRC risk (total meat: OR 1.45; 95% CI 1.13–1.87). Stewing (OR 1.25; 95% CI 1.04–1.51) and oven-baking (OR 1.18; 95% CI 1.00–1.40) were associated with increased CRC risk of white, but not red, meat.
Our study supports an association of white, red, processed/cured/organ and total meat intake with an increased risk of CRC. Moreover, our study showed that cooking practices can modulate such risk.
KeywordsColorectal cancer Meat Cooking Epidemiology
The study was partially funded by the “Accion Transversal del Cancer”, approved on the Spanish Ministry Council on 11 October 2007, by the Instituto de Salud Carlos III-FEDER (PI08/1770, PI08/0533, PI08/1359, PS09/00773, PS09/01286, PS09/01903, PS09/02078, PS09/01662, PI11/01403, PI11/01889, PI11/00226, PI11/01810, PI11/02213, PI12/00488, PI12/00265, PI12/01270, PI12/00715, PI12/00150), by the Fundación Marqués de Valdecilla (API 10/09), by the ICGC International Cancer Genome Consortium CLL, by the Junta de Castilla y León (LE22A10-2), by the Consejería de Salud of the Junta de Andalucía (PI-0571), by the Conselleria de Sanitat of the Generalitat Valenciana (AP 061/10), by the Recercaixa (2010ACUP 00310), by the Regional Government of the Basque Country, by European Commission grants FOOD-CT-2006-036224-HIWATE, by the Spanish Association Against Cancer (AECC) Scientific Foundation, by the Catalan Government DURSI grant 2009SGR1489. Jordi de Batlle acknowledges the support of the European Commission FP7 Marie Curie Actions-People, Cofunding of regional, national, and international programs (COFUND).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All participants signed an informed consent prior to their inclusion in the study. The study has been approved by the ethics committees of all participating centres and has therefore been performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments.
- 1.Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, Dikshit R, Eser S, Mathers C, Rebelo M, Parkin DM, Forman D, Bray F (2013) GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11. International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon. Available from: http://globocan.iarc.fr (last accessed May 6th 2015)
- 3.Spanish Interactive Epidemiological Information System (ARIADNA). http://ariadna.cne.isciii.es (last accessed January 27th 2016)
- 4.World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (2011) Continuous Update Project Report Summary. Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the prevention of Colorectal CancerGoogle Scholar
- 24.Castaño-Vinyals G, Aragonés N, Pérez-Gómez B, Martín V, Llorca J, Moreno V, Altzibar JM, Ardanaz E, de Sanjosé S, Jiménez-Moleón JJ, Tardón A, Alguacil J, Peiró R, Marcos-Gragera R, Navarro C, Pollán M, Kogevinas M, MCC-Spain Study Group (2015) Population-based multicase-control study in common tumors in Spain (MCC-Spain): rationale and study design. Gac Sanit 29(4):308–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 26.CESNID (2008) Tablas de composición de alimentos CESNID. Taules de composició dels aliments CESNID. Ediciones de la Universitat de Barcelona, McGraw Hill-Interamericana de España SA, BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
- 28.Nothlings U, Hoffmann K, Boeing H (2002) Do cross-check questions improve food frequency questionnaire data?. IARC Scientific Publications, IARC Press, LyonGoogle Scholar
- 30.Hosmer DW, Lemeshow S (1989) Applied logistic regression. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 35.Guallar-Castillón P, Rodríguez-Artalejo F, Lopez-Garcia E, León-Muñoz LM, Amiano P, Ardanaz E, Arriola L, Barricarte A, Buckland G, Chirlaque MD, Dorronsoro M, Huerta JM, Larrañaga N, Marin P, Martínez C, Molina E, Navarro C, Quirós JR, Rodríguez L, Sanchez MJ, González CA, Moreno-Iribas C (2012) Consumption of fried foods and risk of coronary heart disease: Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. BMJ 344:e363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 36.Bastide NM, Chenni F, Audebert M, Santarelli RL, Taché S, Naud N, Baradat M, Jouanin I, Surya R, Hobbs DA, Kuhnle GG, Raymond-Letron I, Gueraud F, Corpet DE, Pierre FH (2015) A central role for heme iron in colon carcinogenesis associated with red meat intake. Cancer Res 75(5):870–879CrossRefGoogle Scholar