Dietary sources of sugars in adolescents’ diet: the HELENA study

  • M. I. Mesana
  • A. Hilbig
  • O. Androutsos
  • M. Cuenca-García
  • J. Dallongeville
  • I. Huybrechts
  • S. De Henauw
  • K. Widhalm
  • A. Kafatos
  • E. Nova
  • A. Marcos
  • M. González-Gross
  • D. Molnar
  • F. Gottrand
  • L. A. Moreno
Original Contribution

Abstract

Objective

To report dietary sugars consumption and their different types and food sources, in European adolescents.

Methods

Food consumption data of selected groups were obtained from 1630 adolescents (45.6% males, 12.5–17.5 years) from the HELENA study using two nonconsecutive 24-h recalls. Energy intake, total sugars and free sugars were assessed using the HELENA-DIAT software. Multiple regression analyses were performed adjusting for relevant confounders.

Results

Total sugars intake (137.5 g/day) represented 23.6% and free sugars (110.1 g/day), 19% of energy intake. Girls had significantly lower intakes of energy, carbohydrates, total sugars and free sugars. 94% of adolescents had a consumption of free sugars above 10% of total energy intake. The main food contributor to free sugars was ‘carbonated, soft and isotonic drinks,’ followed by ‘non-chocolate confectionary’ and ‘sugar, honey, jam and syrup.’ Older boys and girls had significantly higher intakes of free sugars from ‘cakes, pies and biscuits.’ Free sugars intake was negatively associated with low socioeconomic status for ‘non-chocolate confectionary’ and ‘sugar, honey and jam’ groups; with low maternal educational level for carbonated and ‘soft drinks,’ ‘sugar, honey and jam,’ ‘cakes and pies’ and ‘breakfast cereals’ groups; and with high paternal educational level for ‘carbonated and soft drinks’ and ‘chocolates’ group.

Conclusions

The majority (94%) of studied adolescents consumed free sugars above 10% of daily energy intake. Our data indicate a broad variety in foods providing free sugars. Continued efforts are required at different levels to reduce the intake of free sugars, especially in families with a low educational level.

Keywords

Adolescents Free sugars Food sources Europe Diet 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Sources of support: HELENA study received funding from the European Community Sixth RTD Framework Programme (Contract FOODCT-2005-007034). Additional support from the Spanish Ministry of Education (AGL2007-29784-E/ALI), Axis-Shield Diagnostics Ltd (Oslo, Norway), Abbot Científica S.A. (Spain). This analysis was also supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (JCI-2010-07055) with the contribution of the European Regional Development Fund (FEDER). The study is supported by a grant from the Spanish Carlos III Health Institute: RD08/0072/0025 (Red SAMID: Maternal, Child Health and Development Research Network) and CIBEROBN. The content of this article reflects only the author’s views, and the European Community is not liable for any use that may be made of the information contained herein. Additional contributions: We thank all members of the study teams and especially the adolescents and their parents for their participation in the study.

Members of the HELENA Study Group

Coordinator Luis A. Moreno; Core Group members Luis A. Moreno, Fréderic Gottrand, Stefaan De Henauw, Marcela González-Gross, and Chantal Gilbert; Steering Committee Anthony Kafatos (President), Luis A. Moreno, Christian Libersa, Stefaan De Henauw, Sara Castelló, Fréderic Gottrand, Mathilde Kersting, Michael Sjöstrom, Dénes Molnar, Marcela González-Gross, Jean Dallongeville, Chantal Gilbert, Gunnar Hall, Lea Maes, and Luca Scalfi; Project Manager Pilar Meléndez; Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain Luis A. Moreno, Jesús Fleta, José A. Casajús, Gerardo Rodríguez, Concepción Tomás, María I. Mesana, Germán Vicente-Rodríguez, Adoración Villarroya, Carlos M. Gil, Ignacio Ara, Juan Revenga, Carmen Lachen, Juan M. Fernández Alvira, Gloria Bueno, Aurora Lázaro, Olga Bueno, Juan F. León, Jesús M. Garagorri, Manuel Bueno, Juan Pablo Rey López, Iris Iglesia, Paula Velasco, Silvia Bel, Luis A. Gracia Marco, and Theodora Mouratidou; Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Madrid Ascensión Marcos, Julia Wärnberg, Esther Nova, Sonia Gómez, Ligia Esperanza Díaz, Javier Romeo, Ana Veses, Belén Zapatera, Tamara Pozo, and David Martínez; Université de Lille 2, Lille, France Laurent Beghin, Christian Libersa, Frédéric Gottrand, Catalina Iliescu, and Juliana Von Berlepsch; Research Institute of Child Nutrition Dortmund, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Bonn, Germany Mathilde Kersting, Wolfgang Sichert-Hellert, and Ellen Koeppen; Pécsi Tudományegyetem, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary Dénes Molnar, Eva Erhardt, Katalin Csernus, Katalin Török, Szilvia Bokor, Angela Angster, Enikö Nagy, Orsolya Kovács, and Judit Répasi; University of Crete School of Medicine, Heraklion, Greece Anthony Kafatos, Caroline Codrington, María Plada, Angeliki Papadaki, Katerina Sarri, Anna Viskadourou, Christos Hatzis, Michael Kiriakakis, George Tsibinos, Constantine Vardavas, Manolis Sbokos, Eva Protoyeraki, and Maria Fasoulaki; Institut für Ernährungs und Lebensmittelwissenschaften–Ernährungphysiologie, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn Peter Stehle, Klaus Pietrzik, Marcela González-Gross, Christina Breidenassel, Andre Spinneker, Jasmin Al-Tahan, Miriam Segoviano, Anke Berchtold, Christine Bierschbach, Erika Blatzheim, Adelheid Schuch, and Petra Pickert; University of Granada, Granada, Spain Manuel J. Castillo, Ángel Gutiérrez, Francisco B. Ortega, Jonatan R. Ruiz, Enrique G. Artero, Vanesa España, David Jiménez-Pavón, Palma Chillón, Cristóbal Sánchez-Muñoz, and Magdalena Cuenca-García; Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca per gli Alimenti e la Nutrizione, Roma, Italy Davide Arcella, Elena Azzini, Emma Barrison, Noemi Bevilacqua, Pasquale Buonocore, Giovina Catasta, Laura Censi, Donatella Ciarapica, Paola D’Acapito, Marika Ferrari, Myriam Galfo, Cinzia Le Donne, Catherine Leclercq, Giuseppe Maiani, Beatrice Mauro, Lorenza Mistura, Antonella Pasquali, Raffaela Piccinelli, Angela Polito, Raffaella Spada, Stefania Sette, and Maria Zaccaria; Department of Food Science, University of Napoli Federico II, Naples, Italy Luca Scalfi, Paola Vitaglione, and Concetta Montagnese; Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Stefaan De Henauw, Tineke De Vriendt, Lea Maes, Christophe Matthys, Carine Vereecken, Mieke de Maeyer, Charlene Ottevaere, and Inge Huybrechts. Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria Kurt Widhalm, Katharina Phillipp, Sabine Dietrich, Birgit Kubelka, and Marion Boriss-Riedl; Harokopio University, Athens, Greece Yannis Manios, Eva Grammatikaki, Zoi Bouloubasi, Tina Louisa Cook, Sofia Eleutheriou, Orsalia Consta, George Moschonis, Ioanna Katsaroli, George Kraniou, Stalo Papoutsou, Despoina Keke, Ioanna Petraki, Elena Bellou, Sofia Tanagra, Kostalenia Kallianoti, Dionysia Argyropoulou, Katerina Kondaki, Stamatoula Tsikrika, and Christos Karaiskos; Institut Pasteur de Lille, Lille Jean Dallongeville and Aline Meirhaeghe; Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden Michael Sjöstrom, Jonatan R. Ruiz, Francisco B. Ortega, María Hagströmer, Anita Hurtig Wennlöf, Lena Hallström, Emma Patterson, Lydia Kwak, Julia Wärnberg, and Nico Rizzo; Asociación de Investigación de la Industria Agroalimentaria, Paterna, Spain Jackie Sánchez-Molero, Sara Castelló, Elena Picó, Maite Navarro, Blanca Viadel, José Enrique Carreres, Gema Merino, Rosa Sanjuán, María Lorente, and María José Sánchez; Campden BRI, Chipping Campden, Gloucestershire, United Kingdom Chantal Gilbert, Sarah Thomas, Elaine Allchurch, and Peter Burgess; SIK Institutet foer Livsmedel och Bioteknik, Gothenburg, Sweden Gunnar Hall, Annika Astrom, Anna Sverkén, and Agneta Broberg; Meurice Research and Development asbl, Brussels, Belgium Annick Masson, Claire Lehoux, Pascal Brabant, Philippe Pate, and Laurence Fontaine; Campden and Chorleywood Food Development Institute, Budapest, Hungary Andras Sebok, Tunde Kuti, and Adrienn Hegyi; Productos Aditivos SA, Barcelona, Spain Cristina Maldonado and Ana Llorente; Cárnicas Serrano SL, Paterna, Spain Emilio García; Cederroth International AB, Sverige, Sweden Holger von Fircks, Marianne Lilja Hallberg, and Maria Messerer; Lantmännen Food R&D, Malmö, Sweden Mats Larsson, Helena Fredriksson, Viola Adamsson, and Ingmar Börjesson; European Food Information Council, Brussels Laura Fernández, Laura Smillie, and Josephine Wills; Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid Marcela González-Gross, Jara Valtueña, David Jiménez-Pavón, Ulrike Albers, Raquel Pedrero, Agustín Meléndez, Pedro J. Benito, Juan José Gómez Lorente, David Cañada, Alejandro Urzanqui, Rosa María Torres, and Paloma Navarro.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Ethical standards

All studies have been approved by the appropriate ethics committee and have therefore been performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments. All persons gave their informed consent prior to their inclusion in the study.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. I. Mesana
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • A. Hilbig
    • 5
  • O. Androutsos
    • 6
  • M. Cuenca-García
    • 7
    • 8
  • J. Dallongeville
    • 9
  • I. Huybrechts
    • 10
    • 11
  • S. De Henauw
    • 10
  • K. Widhalm
    • 12
  • A. Kafatos
    • 13
  • E. Nova
    • 14
  • A. Marcos
    • 14
  • M. González-Gross
    • 15
    • 16
    • 19
  • D. Molnar
    • 17
  • F. Gottrand
    • 18
  • L. A. Moreno
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 19
  1. 1.Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development (GENUD) Research GroupUniversity of ZaragozaSaragossaSpain
  2. 2.Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón (IA2)SaragossaSpain
  3. 3.Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Aragón (IIS Aragón)SaragossaSpain
  4. 4.Red de Salud Materno-infantil y del Desarrollo (SAMID)MadridSpain
  5. 5.Research Institute of Child Nutrition (FKE)DortmundGermany
  6. 6.Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Science and EducationHarokopio UniversityAthensGreece
  7. 7.Department of Medical Physiology, School of MedicineUniversity of GranadaGranadaSpain
  8. 8.GALENO Research Group, Department of Physical Education, School of EducationUniversity of CadizPuerto RealSpain
  9. 9.Service d’Epidémiologie et Santé Publique - INSERM U1167 Institut Pasteur de LilleLilleFrance
  10. 10.Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Department of Public HealthGhent UniversityGhentBelgium
  11. 11.Dietary Exposure Assessment GroupInternational Agency for Research on CancerLyonFrance
  12. 12.Division of Clinical Nutrition and Prevention, Department of PediatricsMedical University of ViennaViennaAustria
  13. 13.Department of Social Medicine, Preventive Medicine and Nutrition Clinic, School of MedicineUniversity of CreteHeraklionGreece
  14. 14.Inmunonutrition Research Group, Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Instituto del Frío, Institute of Food Science and Technology and Nutrition (ICTAN)Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)MadridSpain
  15. 15.ImFINE Research Group, Department of Health and Human Performance, Faculty of Physical Activity and Sport-INEFTechnical University of MadridMadridSpain
  16. 16.Institut für Ernährungs- und Lebensmittelwissenschaften - ErnährungphysiologieRheinische Friedrich Wilhelms UniversitätBonnGermany
  17. 17.Department of Paediatrics, Medical FacultyUniversity of PécsPecsHungary
  18. 18.Lille Inflammation Research International Center (LIRIC) UMR 995 InsermUniversity of Lille, CHU LilleLille cedexFrance
  19. 19.Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERObn)MadridSpain

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